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Let's Build Maker Cities for Maker People Around New Resources Like Bandwidth, Compute, and Atomically-Precise Manufacturing

TL;DR: There’s a lot of unused space in North America. Yet cities like San Francisco are becoming ever more expensive because of a bubble created by high tech jobs that seemingly can be done anywhere. Historically cities are built around resources that provide some service to humans. The age of infrastructure rising around physical resources is declining while the age of digital resource exploitation is rising. Cities are still valuable because they are amazing idea and problem solving machines. How about we create thousands of new Maker Cities in the vast emptiness that is North America and build them around digital resources like bandwidth, compute power, Atomically-Precise Manufacturing (AMP), and all things future and bright?

Observation Number One: There’s lots of empty space out there.
Categories: Architecture

Why do I use Leanpub?

Coding the Architecture - Simon Brown - Sat, 08/30/2014 - 11:35

There's been some interesting discussion over the past fews days about Leanpub, both on Twitter and blogs. Jurgen Appelo posted Why I Don't Use Leanpub and Peter Armstrong responded. I think the biggest selling points of Leanpub as a publishing platform from an author's perspective may have been lost in the discussion. So, here's why my take on why I use Leanpub for Software Architecture for Developers.

Some history

I pitched my book idea to a number of traditional publishing companies in 2008 and none of them were very interested. "Nice idea, but it won't sell" was the basic summary. A few years later I decided to self-publish my book instead and I was about to head down the route of creating PDF and EPUB versions using a combination of Pages and iBooks Author on the Mac. Why? Because I love books like Garr Reynolds' Presentation Zen and I wanted to do something similar. At first I considered simply giving the book away for free on my website but, after Googling around for self-publishing options, I stumbled across Leanpub. Despite the Leanpub bookstore being fairly sparse at the start of 2012, the platform piqued my interest and the rest is history.

The headline: book creation, publishing, sales and distribution as a service

I use Leanpub because it allows me to focus on writing content. Period. The platform takes care of creating and selling e-books in a number of different formats. I can write some Markdown, sync the files via Dropbox and publish a new version of my book within minutes.

Typesetting and layout

I frequently get asked for advice about whether Leanpub is a good platform for somebody to write a book. The number one question to ask is whether you have specific typesetting/layout needs. If you want to produce a "Presentation Zen" style book or if having control of your layout is important to you, then Leanpub isn't for you. If, however, you want to write a traditional book that mostly consists of words, then Leanpub is definitely worth taking a look at.

Leanpub uses a slightly customised version of Markdown, which is a super-simple language for writing content. Here's an example of a Markdown file from my book, and you can see the result in the online sample of my book. Leanpub does allow you to tweak things like PDF page size, font size, page breaking, section numbering, etc but you're not going to get pixel perfect typesetting. I think that Leanpub actually does a pretty fantastic job of creating good looking PDF, EPUB and MOBI format ebooks based upon the very minimal Markdown. This is especially true when you consider the huge range of ebook reader software across PCs, Macs, Android devices, Apple devices, Kindles, etc. Plus the readers themselves can mess with the fonts/font sizes too.

Book formatting on Leanpub

It's like building my own server at Rackspace versus using a "Platform as a Service" such as Cloud Foundry. You need to make a decision about the trade-off between control and simplicity/convenience. Since authoring isn't my full-time job and I have lots of other stuff to be getting on with, I'm more than happy to supply the content and let Leanpub take care of everything else for me.


My toolchain as a Leanpub author is incredibly simple: Dropbox and Mou. From a structural perspective, I have one Markdown file per essay and that's basically it. Leanpub does now provide support for using GitHub to store your content and I can see the potential for a simple Leanpub-aware authoring tool, but it's not rocket science. And to prove the point, a number of non-technical people here in Jersey have books on Leanpub too (e.g. Thrive with The Hive and a number of books by Richard Rolfe).

Iterative and incremental delivery

Before starting, I'd already decided that I'd like to write the book as a collection of short essays and this was cemented by the fact that Leanpub allows me to publish an in-progress ebook. I took an iterative and incremental approach to publishing the book. Rather than starting with essay number one and progressing in order, I tried to initially create a minimum viable book that covered the basics. I then fleshed out the content with additional essays once this skeleton was in place, revisiting and iterating upon earlier essays as necessary. I signed up for Leanpub in January 2012 and clicked the "Publish" button four weeks later. That first version of my book was only about ten pages in length but I started selling copies immediately.

Variable pricing and coupons

Another thing that I love about Leanpub is that it gives you full control over how you price your book. The whole pricing thing is a balancing act between readership and royalties, but I like that I'm in control of this. My book started out at $4.99 and, as content was added, that price increased. The book now currently has a minimum price of $20 and a recommended price of $30. I can even create coupons for reduced price or free copies too. There's some human psychology that I don't understand here, but not everybody pays the minimum price. Far from it, and I've had a good number of people pay more than the recommend price too. Leanpub provides all of the raw data, so you can analyse it as needed.

An incubator for books

As I've already mentioned, I pitched my book idea to a bunch of regular publishing companies and they weren't interested. Fast-forward a few years and my book is the currently the "bestselling" book on Leanpub this week, fifth by lifetime earnings and twelfth in terms of number of copies sold. I've used quotes around "bestselling" because Jurgen did. ;-)

Leanpub bestsellers

In his blog post, Peter Armstrong emphasises that Leanpub is a platform for publishing in-progress ebooks, especially because you can publish using an iterative and incremental approach. For this reason, I think that Leanpub is a fantastic way for authors to prove an idea and get some concrete feedback in terms of sales. Put simply, Leanpub is a fantastic incubator for books. I know of a number of books that were started on Leanpub have been taken on by traditional publishing companies. I've had a number of offers too, including some for commercial translations. Sure, there are other ways to publish in-progress ebooks, but Leanpub makes this super-easy and the barrier to entry is incredibly low.

The future for my book?

What does the future hold for my book then? I'm not sure that electronic products are ever really "finished" and, although I consider my book to be "version 1", I do have some additional content that is being lined up. And when I do this, thanks to the Leanpub platform, all of my existing readers will get the updates for free.

I've so far turned down the offers that I've had from publishing companies, primarily because they can't compete in terms of royalties and I'm unconvinced that they will be able to significantly boost readership numbers. Leanpub is happy for authors to sell their books through other channels (e.g. Amazon) but, again, I'm unconvinced that simply putting the book onto Amazon will yield an increased readership. I do know of books on the Kindle store that haven't sold a single copy, so I take "Amazon is bigger and therefore better" arguments with a pinch of salt.

What I do know is that I'm extremely happy with the return on my investment. I'm not going to tell you how much I've earned, but a naive calculation of $17.50 (my royalty on a $20 sale) x 4,600 (the total number of readers) is a little high but gets you into the right ballpark. In summary, Leanpub allows me focus on content, takes care of pretty much everything and gives me an amazing author royalty as a result. This is why I use Leanpub.

Categories: Architecture

Inspirational Work Quotes at a Glance

What if your work could be your ultimate platform? … your ultimate channel for your growth and greatness?

We spend a lot of time at work. 

For some people, work is their ultimate form of self-expression

For others, work is a curse.

Nobody stops you from using work as a chance to challenge yourself, to grow your skills, and become all that you’re capable of.

But that’s a very different mindset than work is a place you have to go to, or stuff you have to do.

When you change your mind, you change your approach.  And when you change your approach, you change your results.   But rather than just try to change your mind, the ideal scenario is to expand your mind, and become more resourceful.

You can do so with quotes.

Grow Your “Work Intelligence” with Inspirational Work Quotes

In fact, you can actually build your “work intelligence.”

Here are a few ways to think about “intelligence”:

  1. the ability to learn or understand things or to deal with new or difficult situations (Merriam Webster)
  2. the more distinctions you have for a given concept, the more intelligence you have

In Rich Dad, Poor Dad, Robert Kiyosaki, says, “intelligence is the ability to make finer distinctions.”   And, Tony Robbins, says “intelligence is the measure of the number and the quality of the distinctions you have in a given situation.”

If you want to grow your “work intelligence”, one of the best ways is to familiarize yourself with the best inspirational quotes about work.

By drawing from wisdom of the ages and modern sages, you can operate at a higher level and turn work from a chore, into a platform of lifelong learning, and a dojo for personal growth, and a chance to master your craft.

You can use inspirational quotes about work to fill your head with ideas, distinctions, and key concepts that help you unleash what you’re capable of.

To give you a giant head start and to help you build a personal library of profound knowledge, here are two work quotes collections you can draw from:

37 Inspirational Quotes for Work as Self-Expression

Inspirational Work Quotes

10 Distinct Ideas for Thinking About Your Work

Let’s practice.   This will only take a minute, and if you happen to hear the right words, which are the keys for you, your insight or “ah-ha” can be just the breakthrough that you needed to get more of your work, and, as a result, more out of life (or at least your moments.)

Here is a sample of distinct ideas and depth that you use to change how you perceive your work, and/or how you do your work:

  1. “Either write something worth reading or do something worth writing.” — Benjamin Franklin
  2. “You don’t get paid for the hour. You get paid for the value you bring to the hour.” — Jim Rohn
  3. “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do.” — Steve Jobs
  4. “Measuring programming progress by lines of code is like measuring aircraft building progress by weight.” -- Bill Gates
  5. “We must each have the courage to transform as individuals. We must ask ourselves, what idea can I bring to life? What insight can I illuminate? What individual life could I change? What customer can I delight? What new skill could I learn? What team could I help build? What orthodoxy should I question?” – Satya Nadella
  6. “My work is a game, a very serious game.” — M. C. Escher
  7. “Hard work is a prison sentence only if it does not have meaning. Once it does, it becomes the kind of thing that makes you grab your wife around the waist and dance a jig.” — Malcolm Gladwell
  8. “The test of the artist does not lie in the will with which he goes to work, but in the excellence of the work he produces.” -- Thomas Aquinas
  9. “Are you bored with life? Then throw yourself into some work you believe in with all you heart, live for it, die for it, and you will find happiness that you had thought could never be yours.” — Dale Carnegie
  10. “I like work; it fascinates me. I can sit and look at it for hours.” -– Jerome K. Jerome

For more ideas, take a stroll through my inspirational work quotes.

As you can see, there are lots of ways to think about work and what it means.  At the end of the day, what matters is how you think about it, and what you make of it.  It’s either an investment, or it’s an incredible waste of time.  You can make it mundane, or you can make it matter.

The Pleasant Life, The Good Life, and The Meaningful Life

Here’s another surprise about work.   You can use work to live the good life.   According to Martin Seligman, a master in the art and science of positive psychology, there are three paths to happiness:

  1. The Pleasant Life
  2. The Good Life
  3. The Meaningful Life

In The Pleasant Life, you simply try to have as much pleasure as possible.  In The Good Life, you spend more time in your values.  In The Meaningful Life, you use your strengths in the service of something that is bigger than you are.

There are so many ways you can live your values at work and connect your work with what makes you come alive.

There are so many ways to turn what you do into service for others and become a part of something that’s bigger than you.

If you haven’t figured out how yet, then dig deeper, find a mentor, and figure it out.

You spend way too much time at work to let your influence and impact fade to black.

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Satya Nadella on Live and Work a Meaningful Life

Short-Burst Work

Categories: Architecture, Programming

Introduction to big data presentation

I presented big data to Amdocs’ product group last week. One of the sessions I did was recorded so I might be able to add here later. Meanwhile you can check out the slides.

Note that trying to keep the slide visual I put some of the information is in the slide notes and not on the slides themselves.

Big data Overview from Arnon Rotem-Gal-Oz

Categories: Architecture

Is there a future for Map/Reduce?


Google’s Jeffrey Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat filed the patent request and published the map/reduce paper  10 year ago (2004). According to WikiPedia Doug Cutting and Mike Cafarella created Hadoop, with its own implementation of Map/Reduce,  one year later at Yahoo – both these implementations were done for the same purpose – batch indexing of the web.

Back than, the web began its “web 2.0″ transition, pages became more dynamic , people began to create more content – so an efficient way to reprocess and build the web index was needed and map/reduce was it. Web Indexing was a great fit for map/reduce since the initial processing of each source (web page) is completely independent from any other – i.e.  a very convenient map phase and you need  to combine the results to build the reverse index. That said, even the core google algorithm –  the famous pagerank is iterative (so less appropriate for map/reduce), not to mention that  as the internet got bigger and the updates became more and more frequent map/reduce wasn’t enough. Again Google (who seem to be consistently few years ahead of the industry) began coming up with alternatives like Google Percolator  or  Google Dremel (both papers were published in 2010, Percolator was introduced at that year, and dremel has been used in Google since 2006).

So now, it is 2014, and it is time for the rest of us to catch up with Google and get over Map/Reduce and  for multiple reasons:

  • end-users’ expectations (who hear “big data” but interpret that as  “fast data”)
  • iterative problems like graph algorithms which are inefficient as you need to load and reload the data each iteration
  • continuous ingestion of data (increments coming on as small batches or streams of events) – where joining to existing data can be expensive
  • real-time problems – both queries and processing

In my opinion, Map/Reduce is an idea whose time has come and gone – it won’t die in a day or a year, there is still a lot of working systems that use it and the alternatives are still maturing. I do think, however, that if you need to write or implement something new that would build on map/reduce – you should use other option or at the very least carefully consider them.

So how is this change going to happen ?  Luckily, Hadoop has recently adopted YARN (you can see my presentation on it here), which opens up the possibilities to go beyond map/reduce without changing everything … even though in effect,  a lot  will change. Note that some of the new options do have migration paths and also we still retain the  access to all that “big data” we have in Hadoopm as well as the extended reuse of some of the ecosystem.

The first type of effort to replace map/reduce is to actually subsume it by offering more  flexible batch. After all saying Map/reduce is not relevant, deosn’t mean that batch processing is not relevant. It does mean that there’s a need to more complex processes. There are two main candidates here  Tez and Spark where Tez offers a nice migration path as it is replacing map/reduce as the execution engine for both Pig and Hive and Spark has a compelling offer by combining Batch and Stream processing (more on this later) in a single engine.

The second type of effort or processing capability that will help kill map/reduce is MPP databases on Hadoop. Like the “flexible batch” approach mentioned above, this is replacing a functionality that map/reduce was used for – unleashing the data already processed and stored in Hadoop.  The idea here is twofold

  • To provide fast query capabilities* – by using specialized columnar data format and database engines deployed as daemons on the cluster
  • To provide rich query capabilities – by supporting more and more of the SQL standard and enriching it with analytics capabilities (e.g. via MADlib)

Efforts in this arena include Impala from Cloudera, Hawq from Pivotal (which is essentially greenplum over HDFS), startups like Hadapt or even Actian trying to leverage their ParAccel acquisition with the recently announced Actian Vector . Hive is somewhere in the middle relying on Tez on one hand and using vectorization and columnar format (Orc)  on the other

The Third type of processing that will help dethrone Map/Reduce is Stream processing. Unlike the two previous types of effort this is covering a ground the map/reduce can’t cover, even inefficiently. Stream processing is about  handling continuous flow of new data (e.g. events) and processing them  (enriching, aggregating, etc.)  them in seconds or less.  The two major contenders in the Hadoop arena seem to be Spark Streaming and Storm though, of course, there are several other commercial and open source platforms that handle this type of processing as well.

In summary – Map/Reduce is great. It has served us (as an industry) for a decade but it is now time to move on and bring the richer processing capabilities we have elsewhere to solve our big data problems as well.

Last note  – I focused on Hadoop in this post even thought there are several other platforms and tools around. I think that regardless if Hadoop is the best platform it is the one becoming the de-facto standard for big data (remember betamax vs VHS?)

One really, really last note – if you read up to here, and you are a developer living in Israel, and you happen to be looking for a job –  I am looking for another developer to join my Technology Research team @ Amdocs. If you’re interested drop me a note: arnon.rotemgaloz at amdocs dot com or via my twitter/linkedin profiles

*esp. in regard to analytical queries – operational SQL on hadoop with efforts like  Phoenix ,IBM’s BigSQL or Splice Machine are also happening but that’s another story

illustration idea found in  James Mickens’s talk in Monitorama 2014 –  (which is, by the way, a really funny presentation – go watch it) -ohh yeah… and pulp fiction :)

Categories: Architecture

Hadoop YARN overview

I did a short overview of Hadoop YARN to our big data development team. The presentation covers the motivation for YARN, how it works and its major weaknesses

You can watch/download on slideshare

Categories: Architecture

New book review ‘SOA Made Simple’ coming soon.

Ben Wilcock - Tue, 02/05/2013 - 14:24

My review copy has arrived and I’ll be reviewing it just as soon as I can, but in the meantime if you’d like more information about this new book go to

Categories: Architecture, Programming

Facebook Has An Architectural Governance Challenge

Just to be clear, I don't work for Facebook, I have no active engagements with Facebook, my story here is my own and does not necessarily represent that of IBM. I'd spent a little time at Facebook some time ago, I've talked with a few of its principal developers, and I've studied its architecture. That being said:

Facebook has a looming architectural governance challenge.

When I last visited the company, they had only a hundred of so developers, the bulk of whom fit cozily in one large war room. Honestly, it was little indistinguishable from a Really Nice college computer lab: nice work desks, great workstations, places where you could fuel up with caffeine and sugar. Dinner was served right there, so you never needed to leave. Were I a twenty-something with only a dog and a futon to my name, it would be been geek heaven. The code base at the time was, by my estimate, small enough that it was grokable, and the major functional bits were not so large and were sufficiently loosely coupled such that development could proceed along nearly independent threads of progress.

I'll reserve my opinions of Facebook's development and architectural maturity for now. But, I read with interest this article that reports that Facebook plans to double in size in the coming year.

Oh my, the changes they are a comin'.

Let's be clear, there are certain limited conditions under which the maxim "give me PHP and a place to stand, and I will move the world" holds true. Those conditions include having a) a modest code base b) with no legacy friction c) growth and acceptance and limited competition that masks inefficiencies, d) a hyper energetic, manically focused group of developers e) who all fit pretty much in the same room. Relax any of those constraints, and Developing Really Really Hard just doesn't cut it any more.

Consider: the moment you break a development organization across offices, you introduce communication and coordination challenges. Add the crossing of time zones, and unless you've got some governance in place, architectural rot will slowly creep in and the flaws in your development culture will be magnified. The subtly different development cultures that will evolve in each office will yield subtly different textures of code; it's kind of like the evolutionary drift on which Darwin reported. If your architecture is well-structure, well-syndicated, and well-governed, you can more easily split the work across groups; if your architecture is poorly-structured, held in the tribal memory of only a few, and ungoverned, then you can rely on heroics for a while, but that's unsustainable. Your heros will dig in, burn out, or cash out.

Just to be clear, I'm not picking on Facebook. What's happening here is a story that every group that's at the threshold of complexity must cross. If you are outsourcing to India or China or across the city, if you are growing your staff to the point where the important architectural decisions no longer will fit in One Guy's Head, if you no longer have the time to just rewrite everything, if your growing customer base grows increasingly intolerant of capricious changes, then, like it or not, you've got to inject more discipline.

Now, I'm not advocating extreme, high ceremony measures. As a start, there are some fundamentals that will go a long way: establish a well-instrumented and well-automated build and release system; use some collaboration tools that channel work but also allow for serendipitous connections; codify and syndicate the system's load bearing wells/architectural decisions; create a culture of patterns and refactoring.

Remind your developers that what they do, each of of them, is valued; remind your developers there is more to life than coding.

It will be interesting to watch how Facebook metabolizes this growth. Some organizations are successful in so doing; many are not. But I really do wish Facebook success. If they thought the past few years were interesting times, my message to them is that the really interesting times are only now beginning. And I hope they enjoy the journey.
Categories: Architecture

How Watson Works

Earlier this year, I conducted an archeological dig on Watson. I applied the techniques I've developed for the Handbook which involves the use of the UML, Philippe Kruchten's 4+1 View Model, and IBM's Rational Software Architect. The fruits of this work have proven to be useful as groups other than Watson's original developers begin to transform the Watson code base for use in other domains.

You can watch my presentation at IBM Innovate on How Watson Works here.
Categories: Architecture

Books on Computing

Over the past several years, I've immersed myself in the literature of the history and the implications of computing. All told, I've consumed over two hundred books, almost one hundred documentaries, and countless articles and websites - and I have a couple of hundred more books yet to metabolize. I've begun to name the resources I've studied here and so offer them up for your reading pleasure.

I've just begun to enter my collection of books - what you see there now at the time of this blog is just a small number of the books that currently surround me in my geek cave - so stay tuned as this list grows. If you have any particular favorites you think I should study, please let me know.
Categories: Architecture

The Computing Priesthood

At one time, computing was a priesthood, then it became personal; now it is social, but it is becoming more human.

In the early days of modern computing - the 40s, 50s and 60s - computing was a priesthood. Only a few were allowed to commune directly with the machine; all others would give their punched card offerings to the anointed, who would in turn genuflect before their card readers and perform their rituals amid the flashing of lights, the clicking of relays, and the whirring of fans and motors. If the offering was well-received, the anointed would call the communicants forward and in solemn silence hand them printed manuscripts, whose signs and symbols would be studied with fevered brow.

But there arose in the world heretics, the Martin Luthers of computing, who demanded that those glass walls and raised floors be brought down. Most of these heretics cried out for reformation because they once had a personal revelation with a machine; from time to time, a secular individual was allowed full access to an otherwise sacred machine, and therein would experience an epiphany that it was the machines who should serve the individual, not the reverse. Their heresy spread organically until it became dogma. The computer was now personal.

But no computer is an island entire of itself; every computer is a piece of the continent, a part of the main. And so it passed that the computer, while still personal, became social, connected to other computers that were in turn connected to yet others, bringing along their users who delighted in the unexpected consequences of this network effect. We all became part of the web of computed humanity, able to weave our own personal threads in a way that added to this glorious tapestry whose patterns made manifest the noise and the glitter of a frantic global conversation.

It is as if we have created a universe, then as its creators, made the choice to step inside and live within it. And yet, though connected, we remain restless. We now strive to craft devices that amplify us, that look like us, that mimic our intelligence.

Dr. Jeffrey McKee has noted that "every species is a transitional species." It is indeed so; in the co-evolution of computing and humanity, both are in transition. It is no surprise, therefore, that we now turn to re-create computing in our own image, and in that journey we are equally transformed.
Categories: Architecture


No matter what future we may envision, that future relies on software-intensive systems that have not yet been written.

You can now follow me on Twitter.
Categories: Architecture

There Were Giants Upon the Earth

Steve Jobs. Dennis Ritchie. John McCarthy. Tony Sale.

These are men who - save for Steve Jobs - were little known outside the technical community, but without whom computing as we know it today would not be. Dennis created Unix and C; John invented Lisp; Tony continued the legacy of Bletchley Park, where Turing and others toiled in extreme secrecy but whose efforts shorted World War II by two years.

All pioneers of computing.

They will be missed.
Categories: Architecture

Steve Jobs

This generation, this world, was graced with the brilliance of Steve Jobs, a man of integrity who irreversibly changed the nature of computing for the good. His passion for simplicity, elegance, and beauty - even in the invisible - was and is an inspiration for all software developers.

Quote of the day:

Almost everything - all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.
Steve Jobs
Categories: Architecture

Thu, 01/01/1970 - 01:00