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Architecture

### BE Agile before you Become Agile

Xebia Blog - Wed, 08/20/2014 - 20:49

People dislike change. It disrupts our routines and we need to invest to adapt. We only go along if we understand why change is needed and how we benefit from it.
The key to intrinsic motivation is to experience the benefits of the change yourself, rather than having someone else explain it to you.

Agility is almost an acronym for change. It is critical to let people experience the benefits of Agility before asking them to buy into this new way of working. This post explains how to create a great Agile experience in a fun, simple, cost efficient and highly effective way. BEing agile, before BEcoming agile!

The concept of a “Company Innovation Day”

Have you seen this clip about Dan Pinks’ Drive? According to him, the key factors for more motivation and better performance are: autonomy, mastery and purpose.
If you have some scrum experience this might sound familiar, right? That is because these 3 things really tie in nicely with agile and scrum, for example:

Autonomy = being able to self-direct;
• Let the team plan their own work
• Let the team decide how to best solve problems

Mastery = learning, applying and mastering new skills and abilities, a.k.a. "get better at stuff";
• Retrospect and improve
• Learn, apply and master new skills to get achieve goals as a team.

Purpose = understanding necessity and being as effective as possible;
• Write user stories that add value
• Define sprint goals that tie in to product- and business goals.

In the clip, the company "Atlassian" is mentioned. This is the company that makes "JIRA", one of the most popular Agile support tools. Atlassian tries to facilitate autonomy, mastery and purpose by organizing one day per quarter of “management free” innovation. They call it a “ship it day”.

Now this is cool! According to Dan, their people had fun (most important), fixed a whole array of bugs and delivered new product ideas as well. They have to ship all this in one day, again showing similarities with the time boxed scrum approach. When I first saw this, I realized that this kind of fast delivery of value is pretty much something you would like to achieve with Agile Scrum too! Doing Scrum right would feel like a continuous series of ship it days.

My own experience with innovation days

Recently I organized an innovation day with a client (for tips see on how to organize yours, click here). We invited the whole department to volunteer. If you didn’t feel like it, you could just skip it and focus on sprint work. Next we promoted the day and this resulted in a growing list of ideas coming in.
Except for the framing of the day, the formation of ideas and teams was totally self-organized and also result driven as we asked for the expected result. Ultimately we had 20 initiatives to be completed in one day.
On the day itself, almost everyone joined in and people worked hard to achieve results at the end of the day.
The day ended in presenting the results and having pizzas. Only some ideas just missed the deadline, but most were finished including usable and fresh new stuff with direct business value. When looking at the photos of that day it struck me that 9 out of ten photos showed smiling faces. Sweet!

The first innovation day was concluded with an evaluation. In my opinion evaluation is essential, because this is the perfect moment discuss deeper lessons and insights. Questions like; “how can we create the innovation day energy levels during sprints”, and “how can we utilize self-organizing abilities more” are invaluable as they could lead to new insights, inspiration and experiments for day-to-day operations.

The value of an innovation day as a starting point for Agile

All in all, I think an innovation day is the perfect way to get people experiencing the power of Agile.
Doing the innovation day on “day one” offers huge benefits when added to standard stuff like training and games. This is because the context is real. You have a real goal, a real timebox and you need to self-organize to achieve the desired result.
People doing the work get to experience their potential and the power of doing stuff within a simplified context. Managers get to experience unleashing the human potential when they focus only on the context and environment for that day.
I can only imagine the amazement and renewed joy when people experience the possibilities coming from a strong waterfall setting. All that good stuff from just a one-day investment!

Conclusion

It would be great if you would start out an Agile change initiative with an innovation day. Get people enthusiastic and inspired (e.g. motivated for change) first and then tell them why it works and how we are going to apply the same principles in day-to-day operations. This will result in less friction and resistance and give people a better sense for where they are heading.

Do you want to start doing innovation days or do you want to share your experience, feel free to leave a comment below.

### Part 2: The Cloud Does Equal High performance

This a guest post by Anshu Prateek, Tech Lead, DevOps at Aerospike and Rajkumar Iyer, Member of the Technical Staff at Aerospike.

In our first post we busted the myth that cloud != high performance and outlined the steps to 1 Million TPS (100% reads in RAM) on 1 Amazon EC2 instance for just $1.68/hr. In this post we evaluate the performance of 4 Amazon instances when running a 4 node Aerospike cluster in RAM with 5 different read/write workloads and show that the r3.2xlarge instance delivers the best price/performance. Several reports have already documented the performance of distributed NoSQL databases on virtual and bare metal cloud infrastructures: Categories: Architecture ### Creating a Company Where Everyone Gives Their Best “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do.” —Steve Jobs What does it take to create a company where everybody gives their best where they have their best to give? It takes empathy. It also takes encouraging people to be zestful, zany, and zealous. It takes bridging the gap between the traits that make people come alive, and the traits that traditional management practices value. In the book The Future of Management, Gary Hamel walks through what it takes to create a company where everyone gives their best so that employees thrive and companies create sustainable competitive advantage. Resilience and Creativity: The Traits that Differentiate Human Beings from Other Species Resilience and creativity are what separate us from the pack. “Ask your colleagues to describe the distinguishing characteristics of your company, and few are likely to mention adaptability and inventiveness. Yet if you ask them to make a list of the traits that differentiate human beings from other species, resilience and creativity will be near the top of the list. We see evidence of these qualities every day -- in ourselves and in those around us. “ We Work for Organizations that Aren't Very Human People are adaptive and creative, but they often work for organizations that are not. “All of us know folks who've switched careers in search of new challenges or a more balanced life. We know people who've changed their consumption habits for the sake of the planet. We have friends and relatives who've undergone a spiritual transformation, or risen to the demands of parenthood, or overcome tragedy. Every day we meet people who write blogs, experiment with new recipes, mix up dance tunes, or customize their cars. As human beings, we are amazingly adaptable and creative, yet most of us work for companies that are not. In other words, we work for organizations that aren't very human.” Modern Organizations Deplete Natural Resilience and Creativity Why do so many organizations underperform? They ignore or devalue the capabilities that make us human. “There seems to be something in modern organizations that depletes the natural resilience and creativity of human beings, something that literally leaches these qualities out of employees during daylight hours. The culprit? Management principles and processes that foster discipline, punctuality, economy, rationality, and order, yet place little value on artistry, nonconformity, originality, audacity, and élan. To put it simply, most companies are only fractionally human because they make room for only a fraction of the qualities and capabilities that make us human. Billions of people show up for work every day, but way too many of them are sleepwalking. The result: organizations that systematically underperform their potential.” Adaptability and Innovation Have Become the Keys to Competitive Success There’s a great big gap between what makes people great and the management systems that get in the way. “Weirdly, many of those who labor in the corporate world--from lowly admins to high powered CEOs--seem resigned to this state of affairs. They seem unperturbed by the confounding contrast between the essential nature of human beings and the essential nature of the organization in which they work. In years past, it might have been possible to ignore this incongruity, but no longer--not in a world where adaptability and innovation have become the sine qua non of competitive success. The challenge: to reinvent our management systems so they inspire human beings to bring all of their capabilities to work every day.” The Human Capabilities that Contribute to Competitive Success Hamel offers his take on what the relative contribution of human capabilities that contribute to value creation, recognizing that we now live in a world where efficiency and discipline are table stakes. Passion 35% Creativity 25% Initiative 20% Intellect 15% Diligence 5% Obedience 0% 100% “The human capabilities that contribute to competitive success can be arrayed in a hierarchy. At the bottom is obedience--an ability to take direction and follow rules. This is the baseline. Next up the ladder is diligence. Diligent employees are accountable. They don't take shortcuts. They are conscientious and well-organized. Knowledge and intellect are on the next step. Most companies work hard to hire intellectually gifted employees. They value smart people who are eager to improve their skills and willing to borrow best practices from others. Beyond intellect lies initiative. People with initiative don't wait to be asked and don't wait to be told. They seek out new challenges and are always searching for new ways to add value. Higher still lies the gift of creativity. Creative people are inquisitive and irrepressible. They're not afraid of saying stupid things. They start a lot of conversations with, 'Wouldn't it be cool if ..." And finally, at the top lies passion.” The Power of Passion Passion makes us do dumb things. But it’s also the key to doing great things. Via Via The Future of Management: “Passion can make people do stupid things, but it's the secret sauce that turns intent into accomplishment. People with passion climb over obstacles and refuse to give up. Passion is contagious and turns one-person crusades into mass movements. As the English novelist E.M. Forster put it, 'One person with passion is better than forty people merely interested.'” Obedience is Worth Zip in Terms of Competitive Advantage Rule-following employees won’t help you change the world. “I'm not suggesting that obedience is literally worth nothing. A company where no one followed any rules would soon descend into anarchy. Instead, I'm arguing that rule-following employees are worth zip in terms of their competitive advantage they generate. In a world with 4 billion nearly distributed souls, all eager to climb the ladder of economic progress, it's not hard to find billable, hardworking employees. And what about intelligence? For years we've been told we're living in the knowledge economy; but as knowledge itself becomes commoditized, it will lose much of its power to create competitive advantage.” Obedience, Diligence, and Expertise Can Be Bought for Next to Nothing You can easily buy obedience, diligence, and expertise from around the world. But that’s not what will make you the next great company or the next great thing or a great place to work. “Today, obedience, diligence, and expertise can be bought for next to nothing. From Bangalore to Guangzhou, they have become global commodities. A simple example: turn over your iPod, and you'll find six words engraved on the back that foretell the future of competition: 'Designed in California. Made in China.' Despite the equal billing, the remarkable success of Apple's music business owes relatively little to the company's network of Asian subcontractors. It is a credit instead to the imagination of Apple's designers, marketers, and lawyers. Obviously not every iconic product is going to be designed in California, not nor manufactured in China. “ You Need Employees that are Zestful, Zany, and Zealous If you want to bring out the best in people and what they are capable of, aim for zestful, zany, and zealous. “The point, though, is this: if you want to capture the economic high ground in the creative economy, you need employees who are more than acquiescent, attentive, and astute--they must also be zestful, zany, and zealous.” If you want to bring out your best, then break our your zest and get your zane on. You Might Also Like The Principles of Modern Management How Employees Lost Empathy for their Work, for the Customer, and for the Final Product No Slack = No Innovation The Drag of Old Mental Models on Innovation and Change The New Competitive Landscape The New Realities that Call for New Organizational and Management Capabilities Who’s Managing Your Company Categories: Architecture, Programming ### Agile 2014 – speaking and attending; a summary Xebia Blog - Tue, 08/19/2014 - 17:14 So Agile 2014 is over again… and what an interesting conference it was. What did I find most rewarding? Meeting so many agile people! My first conclusion was that there were experts like us agile consultants or starting agile coaches, ScrumMasters and other people getting acquainted with our cool agile world. Another trend I noticed was the scaled agile movement. Everybody seems to be involved in that somehow. Some more successful than others; some more true to agile than others. What I missed this year was the movement of scrum or agile outside IT although my talk about scrum for marketing had a lot of positive responses. Everybody I talked to was interested in hearing more information about it. There was a talk maybe even two about hardware agile but I did not found a lot of buzz around it. Maybe next year? I do feel that there is potential here. I believe Fullstack product development should be the future. Marketing and IT teams? Hardware and software teams? Splitting these still sounds as design and developer teams to me. But what a great conference it was. I met a lot of awesome people. Some just entering the agile world; some authors of books I had read which got me further in the agile movement. I talked to the guys from Spotify. The company which is unique in its agile adoption / maturity. And they don’t even think that they are there yet. But then again will somebody ever truly BE agile ..? I met the guys from scrum.inc who developed a great new scaled framework. Awesome ideas on that subject and awesome potential to treat it as a community created open framework; keep your eyes open for that! I attended some nice talks too; also some horrible ones. Or actually 1, which should never have been presented in a 90 minute slot in a conference like this. But lets get back to the nice stories. Lyssa Adkins had a ‘talk’ about conflicts. Fun thing was that she actually facilitated the debate about scaled agile on stage. The session could have been better but the idea and potential of the subject is great. Best session? Well probably the spotify guys. Still the greatest story out there of an agile company. The key take-out of that session for me is: agile is not an end-state, but a journey. And if you take it as serious as Spotify you might be able to make the working world a lot better. Looking at Xebia we might not even be considered to be trying agile compared to them. And that is meant in a humble way while looking up to these guys! - I know we are one of the frontiers of agile in the Netherlands. The greatest question in this session: ‘Where is the PMO in your model….’ Well you clearly understand this … Another inspiring session was the keynote session from the CFO of Statoil about beyond budgeting. This was a good story which should become bigger in the near future as this is one of the main questions I get when implementing agile in a company: “how do we plan / estimate and budget projects when we go and do agile?” Beyond budgeting at least get’s us a little closer. Long story short. I had a blast in Orlando. I learnt new things and met a lot of cool people.My main take out: Our community is growing which teaches us that we are not yet there by a long run. An awesome future is ahead! See you next year! ### Sponsored Post: Apple, Tumblr, Gawker, FoundationDB, Monitis, BattleCry, Surge, Cloudant, CopperEgg, Logentries, Couchbase, MongoDB, BlueStripe, AiScaler, Aerospike, AppDynamics, ManageEngine, Site24x7 Who's Hiring? • Apple has multiple openings. Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple. Imagine what you could do here. • Senior Software Engineer -iOS Systems. Do you love building highly scalable, distributed web applications? Does the idea of a fast-paced environment make your heart leap? Do you want your technical abilities to be challenged every day, and for your work to make a difference in the lives of millions of people? If so, the iOS Systems Carrier Services team is looking for a talented software engineer who is not afraid to share knowledge, think outside the box, and question assumptions. Please apply here. • Software Engineering Manager, IS&T WWDR Dev Systems. 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Now I went one step further by creating a set of AngularJS directives. You can read the blog on the trifork blog: http://blog.trifork.com/2014/08/19/angularjs-directives-for-c3-js-chart-library/ The post AngularJS directives for c3.js appeared first on Gridshore. Categories: Architecture, Programming ### 1 Aerospike server X 1 Amazon EC2 instance = 1 Million TPS for just$1.68/hour

This a guest post by Anshu Prateek, Tech Lead, DevOps at Aerospike and Rajkumar Iyer, Member of the Technical Staff at Aerospike.

Cloud infrastructure services like Amazon EC2 have proven their worth with wild success. The ease of scaling up resources, spinning them up as and when needed and paying by unit of time has unleashed developer creativity, but virtualized environments are not widely considered as the place to run high performance applications and databases.

Cloud providers however have come a long way in their offerings and need a second review of their performance capabilities. After showing 1 Million TPS on Aerospike on bare metal servers, we decided to investigate cloud performance and in the process, bust the myth that cloud != high performance.

We examined a variety of Amazon instances and just discovered the recipe for processing 1 Million TPS in RAM on 1 Aerospike server on a single C3.8xlarge instance - for just $1.68/hr !!! According to internetlivestats.com, there are 7.5k new tweets per second, 45k google searches per second and 2.3 Million emails sent per second. What would you build if you could process 1 Million database transactions per second for just$1.68/hr?

Categories: Architecture

### Little's Law in 3D

Xebia Blog - Sun, 08/17/2014 - 16:21

The much used relation between average cycle time, average total work and input rate (or throughput) is known as Little's Law. It is often used to argue that it is a good thing to work on less items at the same time (as a team or as an individual) and thus lowering the average cycle time. In this blog I will discuss the less known generalisation of Little's Law giving an almost unlimited number of additional relation. The only limit is your imagination.

I will show relations for the average 'Total Operational Cost in the system' and for the average 'Just-in-Timeness'.

First I will describe some rather straightforward generalisations and in the third part some more complex variations on Little's Law.

Little's Law Variations

As I showed in the previous blogs (Applying Little's Law in Agile Games and Why Little's Law Works...Always) Little's Law in fact states that measuring the total area from left-to-right equals summing it from top-to-bottom.

Once we realise this, it is easy to see some straightforward generalisations which are well-known. I'll mention them here briefly without ging into too much details.

Subsystem

Suppose a system that consists of 1 or more subsystems, e.g. in a kanban system consisting of 3 columns we can identify the subsystems corresponding to:

1. first column (e.g. 'New') in 'red',
2. second column (e.g. 'Doing') in 'yellow',
3. third column (e.g. 'Done') in 'green'

See the figure on the right.

By colouring the subsystems different from each other we see immediately that Little's Law applies to the system as a whole as well as to every subsystem ('red' and 'yellow' area).

Note: for the average input rate consider only the rows that have the corresponding color, i.e. for the input rate of the column 'Doing' consider only the rows that have a yellow color; in this case the average input rate equals 8/3 items per round (entering the 'Doing' column). Likewise for the 'New' column.

Work Item Type

Until now I assumed only 1 type of work items. In practise teams deal with more than one different work item types. Examples include class of service lanes, user stories, and production incidents. Again, by colouring the various work item type differently we see that Little's Law applies to each individual work item type.

In the example on the right, we have coloured user stories ('yellow') and production incidents ('red'). Again, Little's Law applies to both the red and yellow areas separately.

Doing the math we se that for 'user stories' (yellow area):

• Average number in the system (N) = (6+5+4)/3 = 5 user stories,
• Average input rate ($\lambda$\lambda = 6/3 = 2 user stories per round,
• Average waiting time (W) = (3+3+3+3+2+1)/6 = 15/6 = 5/2 rounds.

As expected, the average number in the system equals the average input rate times the average waiting time.

The same calculation can be made for the production incidents which I leave as an exercise to the reader.

Expedite Items

Finally, consider items that enter and spend time in an 'expedite' lane. In Kanban an expedite lane is used for items that need special priority. Usually the policy for handling such items are that (a) there can be at most 1 such item in the system at any time, (b) the team stop working on anything but on this item so that it is completed as fast as possible, (c) they have priority over anything else, and (d) they may violate any WiP limits.

Colouring any work items blue that spend time in the expedite lane we can apply Little's Law to the expedite lane as well.

An example of the colouring is shown in the figure on the right. I leave the calculation to the reader.

3D

We can even further extend Little's Law. Until now I have considered only 'flat' areas.

The extension is that we can give each cell a certain height. See the figure to the right. A variation on Little's Law follows once we realise that measuring the volume from left-to-right is the same as calculating it from top-to-bottom. Instead of measuring areas we measure volumes instead.

The only catch here is that in order to write down Little's Law we need to give a sensible interpretation to the 'horizontal' sum of the numbers and a sensible interpretation to the 'vertical' sum of the numbers. In case of a height of '1' these are just 'Waiting Time' (W) and 'Number of items in the system' (N) respectively.

A more detailed, precise, and mathematical formulation can be found in the paper by Little himself: see section 3.2 in [Lit11].

Some Applications of 3D-Little's Law

Value

As a warming-up exercise consider as the height the (business) value of an item. Call this value 'V'. Every work item will have its own specific value.

$\overline{\mathrm{Value}} = \lambda \overline{V W}$ \overline{\mathrm{Value}} = \lambda \overline{V W}

The interpretation of this relation is that the 'average (business) value of unfinished work in the system at any time' is equal to the average input rate multiplied by the 'average of the product of cycle time and value'.

Teams may ant to minimise this while at the same time maximising the value output rate.

Total Operational Cost

As the next example let's take as the height for the cells a sequence of numbers 1, 2, 3, .... An example is shown in the figures below. What are the interpretations in this case?

Suppose we have a work item that has an operational cost of 1 per day. Then the sequence 1, 2, 3, ... gives the total cost to date. At day 3, the total cost is 3 times 1 which is the third number in the sequence.

The 'vertical' sum is just the 'Total Cost of unfinished work in the system.

For the interpretation of the 'horizontal' sum we need to add the numbers. For a work item that is in the system for 'n' days, the total is $1+2+3+...+n$1+2+3+...+n which equals $1/2 n (n+1)$1/2 n (n+1). For 3 days this gives $1+2+3=1/2 * 3 * 4 = 6$1+2+3=1/2 * 3 * 4 = 6. Thus, the interpretation of the 'horizontal' sum is $1/2 W (W+1)$1/2 W (W+1) in which 'W' represents the waiting time of the item.

Putting this together gives an additional Little's Law of the form:

$\overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W(W + 1)}$ \overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W(W + 1)}

where 'C' is the operational cost rate of a work item and $\lambda$\lambda is the (average) input rate. If instead of rounds in a game, the 'Total Cost in the system' is measured at a time interval 'T' the formula slightly changes into

$\overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W\left(W + T\right)}$ \overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W\left(W + T\right)}

Teams may want to minimise this which gives an interesting optimisation problem is different work item types have different associated operational cost rates. How should the capacity of the be divided over the work items? This is a topic for another blog.

Just-in-Time

For a slightly more odd relation consider items that have a deadline associated with them. Denote the date and time of the deadline by 'D'. As the height choose the number of time units before or after the deadline the item is completed. Further, call 'T' the time that the team has taken up to work on the item. Then the team finishes work on this item at time $T + W$ T + W , where 'W' represent the cycle time of the work item.

In the picture on the left a work item is shown that is finished 2 days before the deadline. Notice that the height decreases as the deadline is approached. Since it is finished 2 time units before the deadline, the just-in-timeness is 2 at the completion time.

The picture on the left shows a work item one time unit after the deadline and has an associated just-in-timeness of 1.

$\overline{\mathrm{Just-in-Time}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda \overline{|T+W-D|(|T+W-D| + 1)}$ \overline{\mathrm{Just-in-Time}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda \overline{|T+W-D|(|T+W-D| + 1)}

This example sounds like a very exotic one and not very useful. A team might want to look at what the best time is to start working on an item so as to minimise the above variable.

Conclusion

From our 'playing around' with the size of areas and volumes and realising that counting it in different ways (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) should give the same result I have been able to derive a new set of relations.

In this blog I have rederived well-known variations on Little's Law regarding subsystems and work items types. In addition I have derived new relations for the 'Average Total Operational Cost', 'Average Value', and 'Average Just-in-Timeness'.

Together with the familiar Little's Law these give rise to interesting optimisation problems and may lead to practical guidelines for teams to create even more value.

I'm curious to hear about the variations that you can come up with! Let me know by posting them here.

References

[Lit11] John D.C. Little, "Little’s Law as Viewed on Its 50th Anniversary", 2011, Operations Research, Vol. 59 , No 3, pp. 536-549, https://www.informs.org/content/download/255808/2414681/file/little_paper.pdf

### Managing OpenStack security groups from the command line

Agile Testing - Grig Gheorghiu - Fri, 08/15/2014 - 20:47
I had an issue today where I couldn't connect to a particular OpenStack instance on port 443. I decided to inspect the security group it belongs (let's call it myapp) to from the command line:

# nova secgroup-list-rules myapp
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range   | Source Group |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| tcp         | 80        | 80      | 0.0.0.0/0  |              |
| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/24 |              |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+

Note that the IP range for port 443 is wrong. It should be all IPs and not a /24 network.

I proceeded to delete the wrong rule:

# nova secgroup-delete-rule myapp tcp 443 443 0.0.0.0/24
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range   | Source Group |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/24 |              |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+

Then I added back the correct rule:
# nova secgroup-add-rule myapp tcp 443 443 0.0.0.0/0                                                                   +-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range  | Source Group |+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/0 |              |+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
Finally, I verified that the rules are now correct:
# nova secgroup-list-rules myapp                                                                                       +-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range  | Source Group |+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/0 |              || tcp         | 80        | 80      | 0.0.0.0/0 |              |+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+
Of course, the real test was to see if I could now hit port 443 on my instance, and indeed I was able to.

### Creativity, INC. – by Ed Catmull

Gridshore - Fri, 08/15/2014 - 20:39

A colleague of mine, Ronald Vonk, recommended this book to me. It is a book by one of the founders of Pixar, you know from all those fantastic computer animated movies. At pixar they created an continuous changing environment where creativity should excel. It is a very interesting read if you are interested in management books that are not to heavy on theories. Ed explains very well and entertaining how they went from a small company with a vision to a huge company with a vision.

Without to much spoilers, you really need to reed the book yourself, I want to mention a few things that I remembered after reading the book.

The team is more important than the idea’s or the talent of the separate people. Take care of the team, make sure they function well and give them responsibility. Make them feel proud when they finished what they wanted to create. Always put people first.

This is something I ran into in my normal working life as well. I do think you have to enable the teams to adept and to stay as a good team. The challenge is to get others in to learn and later on replace team members or start their own team.

We would never make a film that way again. It is the managements job to take the long view, to intervene and protect our people from their willingness to pursue excellence at all costs. Not to do so would be irresponsible.

This was a remark after delivering a movie under great time stress. They pulled through, but at a cost.

Braintrust – Group of people giving feedback and ideas for improvements on a certain idea. Important is that the feedback is meant to improve the idea, not to bully the person(s) the idea originated from. It is very important that everybody is open to the feedback and not defensive. In the end it is not the braintrust that makes a decision, it is the person in charge for the product. Still this group of people is kind of the first user and therefore the feedback should not be taken to lightly.

This was something I had a long thought about, my conclusion was that I am not really good at this. I often do feel that my ideas are my babies that need to be defended. First persuade me I am wrong, o sorry, an idea that someone had was not the best.

I did not want to become a manager, I just wanted to be one of the boys and do research. When we became bigger I realised I became more important and new people did not see me as a peer or one of the guys. I realised things were starting to get hidden from me. It is no problem as long as you trust people will tell someone else that will tell the most important things to me again.

Couldn’t agree more.

You can have this very nice polished finely tuned locomotive. People think that being the driver of the train is giving them power. They feel that driving the train in the end is shaping the company. The truth is, it’s not. Driving the train does not set it’s course. The real job is laying the track.

This was an eye opener a well, something you know but is hard to put into words.

At pixar they do not have contracts. They feel that employment contracts both hurt the employer as well as the employee. If someone had a problem with the company, there wasn’t much point in complaining because they were under contract. If someone didn’t perform well, on the other hand, there was no point in confronting them about it; their contract simply wouldn’t be renewed, which might be the first time they heard about their need to improve. The whole system discouraged and devaluated day-to-day communication and was culturally dysfunctional. But since everybody was used to it, they were blind to the problem.

This is a long one, have thought about it for a while. I think for now I would be to scared to do this in a company, still I like the idea.

What is the point of hiring smart people if you don’t empower them to fix what’s broken? Often to much time is lost in making sure no mistakes will be made. Often however, it just takes a few days to find solutions for mistakes.

Keeps coming back to the same point, a manager is a facilitator, nothing more nothing less. It is a very important role, just like all the others. Think about it, it is the team, the complete team.

The post Creativity, INC. – by Ed Catmull appeared first on Gridshore.

Categories: Architecture, Programming

### Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For August 15th, 2014

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

Somehow this seems quite appropriate. (via John Bredehoft)
• 75 acres: Pizza eaten in US daily; 270TB: Backblaze storage pod; 14nm: Intel extends Moore's Law
• Quotable Quotes
• discreteevent: The dream of reuse has made a mess of many systems.
• David Crawley: Don't think of Moore's Law in terms of technology; think of it in terms of economics and you get much greater understanding. The limits of Moore's Law is not driven by current technology. The limits of Moore's Law are really a matter of cost.
• Simon Brown: If you can't build a monolith, what makes you think microservices are the answer?
• smileysteve: The net result is that you should be able to transmit QPSK at 32GBd in 2 polarizations in maybe 80 waves in each direction. 2bits x 2 polarizations x 32G ~128Gb/s per wave or nearly 11Tb/s for 1 fiber. If this cable has 6 strands, then it could easily meet the target transmission capacity [60TB].
• Eric Brumer: Highly efficient code is actually memory efficient code.

• How to be a cloud optimist. Tell yourself: an instance is half full, it's not half empty; Downtime is temporary; Failures aren't your fault.

• Mother Earth, Motherboard by Neal Stephenson. Goes without saying it's gorgeously written. The topic: The hacker tourist ventures forth across the wide and wondrous meatspace of three continents, chronicling the laying of the longest wire on Earth. < Related to Google Invests In $300M Submarine Cable To Improve Connection Between Japan And The US. • IBM compares virtual machines and against Linux containers: Our results show that containers result in equal or better performance than VM in almost all cases. Both VMs and containers require tuning to support I/O-intensive applications. • Does Psychohistory begin with BigData? Of a crude kind, perhaps. Google uses BigQuery to uncover patterns of world history: What’s even more amazing is that this analysis is not the result of a massive custom-built parallel application built by a team of specialized HPC programmers and requiring a dedicated cluster to run on: in stark contrast, it is the result of a single line of SQL code (plus a second line to create the initial “view”). All of the complex parallelism, data management, and IO optimization is handled transparently by Google BigQuery. Imagine that – a single line of SQL performing 2.5 million correlations in just 2.5 minutes to uncover the underlying patterns of global society. • Fabian Giesen with an deep perspective on how communication has evolved to use a similar pattern. Networks all the way down (part2): anything we would call a computer these days is in fact, for all practical purposes, a heterogeneous cluster made up of various specialized smaller computers, all connected using various networks that go by different names and are specified in different standards, yet are all suspiciously similar at the architecture level; a fractal of switched, packet-based networks of heterogeneous nodes that make up what we call a single “computer”. It means that all the network security problems that plague inter-computer networking also exist within computers themselves. Implementations may change substantially over time, the interfaces – protocols, to stay within our networking terminology – stay mostly constant over large time scales, warts and all. Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)... Categories: Architecture ### Hamsterdb: An Analytical Embedded Key-value Store In this post, I’d like to introduce you to hamsterdb, an Apache 2-licensed, embedded analytical key-value database library similar to Google's leveldb and Oracle's BerkeleyDB. hamsterdb is not a new contender in this niche. In fact, hamsterdb has been around for over 9 years. In this time, it has dramatically grown, and the focus has shifted from a pure key-value store to an analytical database offering functionality similar to a column store database. hamsterdb is single-threaded and non-distributed, and users usually link it directly into their applications. hamsterdb offers a unique (at least, as far as I know) implementation of Transactions, as well as other unique features similar to column store databases, making it a natural fit for analytical workloads. It can be used natively from C/C++ and has bindings for Erlang, Python, Java, .NET, and even Ada. It is used in embedded devices and on-premise applications with millions of deployments, as well as serving in cloud instances for caching and indexing. hamsterdb has a unique feature in the key-value niche: it understands schema information. While most databases do not know or care what kind of keys are inserted, hamsterdb supports key types for binary keys... Categories: Architecture ### Success Articles for Work and Life "Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm." -- Winston Churchill I now have more than 300 articles on the topic of Success to help you get your game on in work and life: Success Articles That’s a whole lot of success strategies and insights right at your fingertips. (And it includes the genius from a wide variety of sources including Scott Adams, Tony Robbins, Bruce Lee, Zig Ziglar, and more.) Success is a hot topic. Success has always been a hot topic, but it seems to be growing in popularity. I suspect it’s because so many people are being tested in so many new ways and competition is fierce. But What is Success? (I tried to answer that using Zig Ziglar’s frame for success.) For another perspective, see Success Defined (It includes definitions of success from Stephen Covey and John Maxwell.) At the end of the day, the most important definition of success, is the one that you apply to you and your life. People can make or break themselves based on how they define success for their life. Some people define success as another day above ground, but for others they have a very high, and very strict bar that only a few mere mortals can ever achieve. That said, everybody is looking for an edge. And, I think our best edge is always our inner edge. As my one mentor put it, “the fastest thing you can change in any situation is yourself.” And as we all know, nature favors the flexible. Our ability to adapt and respond to our changing environment is the backbone of success. Otherwise, success is fleeting, and it has a funny way of eluding or evading us. I picked a few of my favorite articles on success. These ones are a little different by design. Here they are: Scott Adam’s (Dilbert) Success Formula It’s the Pebble in Your Shoe The Wolves Within Personal Leadership Helps Renew You The Power of Personal Leadership Tony Robbins on the 7 Traits of Success The Way of Success The future is definitely uncertain. I’m certain of that. But I’m also certain that life’s better with skill and that the right success strategies under your belt can make or break you in work and life. And the good news for us is that success leaves clues. So make like a student and study. Categories: Architecture, Programming ### The Easy Way of Building a Growing Startup Architecture Using HAProxy, PHP, Redis and MySQL to Handle 1 Billion Requests a Week This Case Study is a guest post written by Antoni Orfin, Co-Founder and Software Architect at Octivi In the post I'll show you the way we developed quite simple architecture based on HAProxy, PHP, Redis and MySQL that seamlessly handles approx 1 billion requests every week. There’ll be also a note of the possible ways of further scaling it out and pointed uncommon patterns, that are specific for this project. Stats: Categories: Architecture ### The AngularJS Promise DSL Xebia Blog - Mon, 08/11/2014 - 10:21 As promised in my previous post, I just pushed the first version of our "Angular Promise DSL" to Github. It extends AngularJS's$q promises with a number of helpful methods to create cleaner applications.

The project is a V1, it may be a bit rough around the edges in terms of practical applicability and documentation, but that's why it's open source now.

The repository is at https://github.com/fwielstra/ngPromiseDsl and licensed as MIT. It's the first OS project I've created, so bear with me. I am accepting pull requests and issues, of course.

Questions? Ask them on the issues page, ask me via Twitter (@frwielstra) or send me an e-mail. I'd offer you to come by my office too... if I had one.

### Introduction to big data presentation

I presented big data to Amdocs’ product group last week. One of the sessions I did was recorded so I might be able to add here later. Meanwhile you can check out the slides.

Note that trying to keep the slide visual I put some of the information is in the slide notes and not on the slides themselves.

Categories: Architecture

### Are You Doing Agile Results?

Why?

Because most people are running around, scrambling through a laundry list of too many things to do, a lack of clarity around what the end result or outcomes should be, and a lack of clarity around what the high-value things to focus on are.  They are using their worst energy for their most important things.  They are spending too much time on the things that don’t matter and not enough time on the things that do.   They are feeling at their worst, when they need to feel at their best, and they are struggling to keep up with the pace of change.

I created Agile Results to deal with the chaos in work and life, as a way to rise above the noise, and to easily leverage the most powerful habits and practices for getting better results in work and life.

Agile Results, in a nutshell, is a simple system for mastering productivity and time management, while at the same time, achieving more impact, realizing your potential, and feeling more fulfillment.

I wrote about the system in the book Getting Results the Agile Way.  It’s been a best seller in time management.

How Does Agile Results Work?

Agile Results works by combining proven practices for productivity, time management, psychology, project management, and some of the best lessons learned on high-performance.   And it’s been tested for more than a decade under extreme scenarios and a variety of conditions from individuals to large teams.

Work-Life balance is baked into the system, but more importantly Agile Results helps you live your values wherever you are, play to your strengths, and rapidly learn how to improve your results in an situation.  When you spend more time in your values, you naturally tap into your skills and abilities that help bring out your best.

The simplest way to think of Agile Results is that it helps you direct your attention and apply your effort on the things that count.  By spending more time on high-value activities and by getting intentional about your outcomes, you dramatically improve your ability to get better results.

But none of that matters if you aren’t using Agile Results.

How Can You Start Using Agile Results?

Start simple.

Simply ask yourself, “What are the 3 wins, results, or outcomes that I want for today?.”   Consider the demands you have on your plate, the time and energy you’ve got, and the opportunities you have for today, and write those 3 things down.

That’s it.   You’re doing Agile Results.

Of course, there’s more, but that’s the single most important thing you can do to immediately gain clarity, regain your focus, and spend your time and energy on the most valuable things.

Now, let’s assume this is the only post you ever read on Agile Results.   Let’s take a fast walkthrough of how you could use the system on a regular basis to radically and rapidly improve your results on an ongoing basis.

How I Do Agile Results? …

Here’s a summary of how I do Agile Results.

I create a new monthly list at the start of each month that lists out all the things that I think I need to do, and I bubble up 3 of my best things I could achieve or must get done to the top.   I look at it at the start of the week, and any time I’m worried if I’m missing something.  This entire process takes me anywhere from 10-20 minutes a month.

I create a weekly list at the start of the week, and I look at it at the start of each day, as input to my 3 target wins or outcomes for the day, and any time I’m worried if I’m missing anything.   This tends to take me 5-10 minutes at the start of the week.

I barely have to ever look at my lists – it’s the act of writing things down that gives me quick focus on what’s important.   I’m careful not to put a bunch of minutia in my lists, because then I’d train my brain to stop focusing on what’s important, and I would become forgetful and distracted.  Instead, it’s simple scaffolding.

Each day, I write a simple list of what’s on my mind and things I think I need to achieve.   Next, I step back and ask myself, “What are the 3 things I want to accomplish today?”, and I write those down.   (This tends to take me 5 minutes or less.  When I first started it took me about 10.)

Each Friday, I take the time to think through three things going well and three things to improve.   I take what I learn as input into how I can simplify work and life, and how I can improve my results with less effort and more effectiveness.   This takes me 10-20 minutes each Friday.

How Can You Adopt Agile Results?

Here is a simple recipe for adopting Agile Results and using it to get better results in work and life:

1. Add a recurring appointment on your calendar for Monday mornings.  Call it Monday Vision.   Add this text to the body of the reminder: “What are your 3 wins for this week?”
2. Add a recurring appointment on your calendar to pop up every day in the morning.  Call it Daily Wins.  Add this text to the body of the reminder: “What are your 3 wins for today?”
3. Add a recurring appointment on your calendar to pop up every Friday mid-morning.  Call it Friday Reflection.  Add this text to the body of your reminder:  What are 3 things going well?  What are 3 things to improve?”
4. On the last day of the month, make a full list of everything you care about for the next month.   Alphabetize the list.  Identify the 3 most important things that you want to accomplish for the month, and put those at the top of the list.   Call this list  Monthly Results for Month XYZ.  (Note – Alphabetizing your list helps you name your list better and sort your list better.  It’s hard to refer to something important you have to do if you don’t even have a name for it.  If naming the things on your list and sorting them is too much to do, you don’t need to.  It’s just an additional tip that helps you get even more effective and more efficient.)
5. On Monday of each week, when you wake up, make a full list of everything you care about accomplishing for the week.  Alphabetize the list.  Identify the 3 most important things you want to accomplish and add that to the top of the list.  (Again, if you don’t want to alphabetize then don’t.)
7. On Fridays,  in the morning, do your Friday Reflection.  As part of the exercise, check against your weekly outcomes and your monthly outcomes that you want to accomplish.  If you aren’t effective for the week, don’t ask “why not,” ask “how to.”   Ask how can you bite off better things and how can you make better choices throughout the week.  Just focus on little behavior changes, and this will add up over time.  You’ll get better and better as you go, as long as you keep learning and changing your approach.   That’s the Agile Way.

There are lots of success stories by other people who have used Agile Results.   Everybody from presidents of companies to people in the trenches, to doctors and teachers, to teams and leaders, as well as single parents and social workers.

But none of that matters if it’s not your story.

Work on your success story and just start getting better results, right here, right now.

What are the three most important things you really want to accomplish or achieve today?

Categories: Architecture, Programming

### Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For August 8th, 2014

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

Physicists reveal the scaling behaviour of exotic giant molecules.
• 5 billion: Transistors Intel manufactures each second; 396M: WeChat active users
• Quotable Quotes:
• @BenedictEvans: Every hour or so, Apple ships phones with something around 2x more transistors than were in all the PCs on earth in 1995.
• @robgomes: New client. Had one of their employees tune an ORM-generated query. Reduced CPU by 99.999%, IO by 99.996%.  Server now idle.
• @pbailis: As a hardware-oriented systems builder, I'd pay attention to, say, ~100 ns RTTs via on-chip photonic interconnects
• @CompSciFact: "Fancy algorithms are buggier than simple ones, and they're much harder to implement." -- Rob Pike's rule No. 4
• @LusciousPear: I'm probably doing in Google what would have taken 5-8 engineers on AWS.
• C. Michael Holloway, NASA: To a first approximation, we can say that accidents are almost always the result of incorrect estimates of the likelihood of one or more things.
• Stephen O'Grady: More specific to containers specifically, however, is the steady erosion in the importance of the operating system.

• Wait, I thought mobile meant making single purpose apps? Mobile meant tearing down the portal cathedrals built by giants of the past. Then Why aren’t App Constellations working?: The App Constellation strategy works when you have a core resource which can be shared across multiple apps.

• Decentralization: I Want to Believe. The irony is mobile loves centralization, not p2p. Mobile IP addresses change all the time and you can't run a server on a phone. The assumption that people want decentralization has been disproven. Centralized services have won. People just want a service that works. The implementation doesn't matter that much. Good discussion on HackerNews and on Reddit.

• Myth: It takes less money to start a startup these days. Sort of.  Why the Structural Changes to the VC Industry Matter: It turns out that, while it is in fact cheaper to get started and enter the market, it also requires more money for the breakout companies to win the market. Ultimately, today’s winners have a chance to be a lot bigger. But winning requires more money for geographic expansion, full-stack support of multiple new disciplines, and product expansion. And these companies have to do all of this while staying private for a much longer period of time; the median for money raised by companies prior to IPO has doubled in the past five years.

Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)...

Categories: Architecture

### Extending AngularJS services with the Decorate method

Xebia Blog - Fri, 08/08/2014 - 12:00

Many large Angular applications tend to see a lot of repetition - same API endpoint, same method of dealing with and transforming data, etcetera. One technique you can use to at least alleviate that is using AngularJS's decorate method, which allows you to extend, adjust or even fully replace any existing service.

As you'll see in this post, using this allows you to modify and extend the framework you build your app in, which will lead to a cleaner, more legible codebase, written in a more functional style (the what, not the how).

Update 11/8: The follow-up is now live, along with the GitHub repository.

A feature not often used when developing AngularJS applications is the $provide service, which is the primary service used to register components with the$injector. More commonly, a developer would use methods like $provide.service() or$provide.factory to do so, but those are merely utility methods defined in the $provide service and exposed via angular.module(). The main reasons to use$provide over the service() and factory() methods is to configure the service before it's instantiated, for example. While there may be more advanced use-cases for using $provide, I haven't yet encountered them while developing regular applications and I'm sure they won't occur often. One of the methods listed at the very bottom of the$provide documentation is the decorate() method. It doesn't look like much (it's at the bottom, after all), but its documentation hints that it's very powerful:

"A service decorator intercepts the creation of a service, allowing it to override or modify the behaviour of the service. The object returned by the decorator may be the original service, or a new service object which replaces or wraps and delegates to the original service."

Nothing to add there. You can use decorate() to change, add to, or completely replace the behaviour of services without having to edit its code. This can be done on any code not your own - core AngularJS services, but also third-party libraries. It's the equivalent of overriding methods in OO languages or monkey-patching in the more dynamic languages.

“Isn’t that evil?”, I hear you ask. As with every programming-related question, the only correct answer is: it depends. I’m going to give a few practical examples of when I believe using decorate() is appropriate. In a future blog post, I'll expand on this example, showing how relatively simple code can positively influence your entire application architecture.

Here’s a practical example, a neat follow-up on my previous blog about angular promises: decorating $q to add methods to the promise object. The promise API itself defines only one method: then().$q adds a few simple methods to that like catch() and finally(), but for your own application you can add a few more.

If you’ve been working with promises for a little while in your AngularJS application, you’ve probably noticed some operations are pretty common; assigning the promise result to the scope (or any object), logging the result in the console, or calling some other method. Using decorate(), we can add methods to the promise object to simplify those. Here's a bit of code from my previous post; we'll add a method to $q to remove the need for a callback: CustomerService.getCustomer(currentCustomer) .then(CartService.getCart) .then(function(cart) {$scope.cart = cart;
})
.catch($log.error);  First, we’ll need to do some boilerplate: we create a function that adds our methods to the promise object, and then we replace all the default promise methods. Note that the decorating function will also apply itself to the given promise.then method again, so that our customisations aren’t lost further down a promise chain: angular.module('ngPromiseDsl', []) .config(function ($provide) {
$provide.decorator('$q', function ($delegate,$location) {

// decorating method

function decoratePromise(promise) {
var then = promise.then;

// Overwrite promise.then. Note that $q's custom methods (.catch and .finally) are implemented by using .then themselves, so they're covered too. promise.then = function (thenFn, errFn, notifyFn) { return decoratePromise(then(thenFn, errFn, notifyFn)); }; return promise; } // wrap and overwrite$q's deferred object methods

var defer = $delegate.defer, when =$delegate.when,
reject = $delegate.reject, all =$delegate.all;

$delegate.defer = function () { var deferred = defer(); decoratePromise(deferred.promise); return deferred; };$delegate.when = function () {
return decoratePromise(when.apply(this, arguments));
};

$delegate.reject = function () { return decoratePromise(reject.apply(this, arguments)); };$delegate.all = function () {
return decoratePromise(all.apply(this, arguments));
};

return $delegate; }); });  With that boilerplate in place, we can now start adding methods. As I mentioned earlier, one of the most common uses of a then() function is to set the result onto the scope (or some other object). This is a fairly trivial operation, and it’s pretty straightforward to add it to the promise object using our decorator, too: function decoratePromise(promise) { var then = promise.then; promise.then = function (thenFn, errFn, notifyFn) { return decoratePromise(then(thenFn, errFn, notifyFn)); }; // assigns the value given to .then on promise resolution to the given object under the given varName promise.thenSet = function (obj, varName) { return promise.then(function (value) { obj[varName] = value; return value; }); }; return promise; }  That’s all. Put this .config block in your application's module definition, or create a new module and add a dependency to it, and you can use it throughout your application. Here's the same piece of code, now with our new thenSet method: CustomerService.getCustomer(currentCustomer) .then(CartService.getCart) .thenSet($scope, 'cart')
.catch($log.error);  This particular example can be extended in a multitude ways to add useful utilities to promises. In my current project we’ve added a number of methods to the promise object, which allows us to reduce the number of callback definitions in our controllers and thus create cleaner, more legible code. Replacing custom callbacks with named methods allows for a more functional programming style, and allows readers to read and write code as a list of “whats”, instead of “hows” - and it's also fully asynchronous. Extending$q is just the start though: Every angular service can be extended for various purposes - add performance monitoring and logging to $http, set common prefixes or fixed properties on$resource urls or template paths, you name it. Leave a remark in the comments about how you've used decorate() to create a better application.

Stay tuned for an upcoming post where I release a small open source project that extends angular’s promise objects with a number of helpful methods to perform common tasks.

### The Principles of Modern Management

Are your management practices long in the tooth?

I think I was lucky that early on, I worked in environments that shook things up and rattled the cage in pursuit of more customer impact, employee engagement, and better organizational performance.

In one of the environments, a manufacturing plant, the management team flipped the typical pyramid of the management hierarchy upside down to reflect that the management team is there to empower and support the production line.

And when I was on the Microsoft patterns & practices team, we had an interesting mix of venture capitalist type management coupled with some early grandmasters of the Agile movement.   More than just Agile teams, we had an Agile management culture that encouraged a customer-connected approach to product development, complete with self-organizing, multi-disciplinary teams, empowered people, a focus on execution excellence, and a fierce focus on being a rapid learning machine.

We thrived on change.

We also had a relentless focus on innovation.  Not just in our product, but in our process.  If we didn’t innovate in our process, then we got pushed out of market by becoming too slow, too expensive, or by lacking the quality experience that customers have come to expect.

But not everybody knows what a great environment for helping people thrive and do great things for the world, looks like.

While a lot of people in software or in manufacturing have gotten a taste of Agile and Lean practices, there are many more businesses that don’t know what a modern learning machine of people and processes that operate at a higher-level looks like.

Many, many businesses and people are still operating and looking at the world through the lens of old world management principles.

In the book The Future of Management, Gary Hamel walks through the principles upon which modern management is based.

The Principles of Modern Management

Hamel gives us a nice way to frame looking at the modern management principles, by looking at their application, and their intended goal.

Principle Application Goal Standardization Minimize variances from standards around inputs, outputs, and work methods. Cultivate economies of scale, manufacturing efficiency, reliability, and quality. Specialization (of tasks and functions) Group like activities together in modular organizational units. Reduce complexity and accelerate learning. Goal alignment Establish clear objectives through a cascade of subsidiary goals and supporting metrics. Ensure that individual efforts are congruent with top-down goals. Hierarchy Create a pyramid of authority based on a limited span of control. Maintain control over a broad scope of operations. Planning and control Forecast demand, budget resources, and schedule tasks, then track and correct deviations from plan. Establish regularity and predictability in operations; conformance to plans. Extrinsic rewards Provide financial rewards to individuals and teams for achieving specified outcomes. Motivate effort and ensure compliance with policies and standards. What are the Principles Upon Which Your Management Beliefs are Based?

Most people aren’t aware of the principles behind the management beliefs that they practice or preach.  But before coming up with new ones, it helps to know what current management thinking is rooted in.

“Have you ever asked yourself, what are the deepest principles upon which your management beliefs are based? Probably not.  Few executives, in my experience, have given much thought to the foundational principles that underlie their views on how to organize and manage.  In that sense, they are as unaware of their management DNA as they are of their biological DNA.  So before we set off in search of new management principles, we need to take a moment to understand the principles that comprise our current management genome, and how those tenets may limit organizational performance.”

A Small Nucleus of Core Principles

It really comes down to a handful of core principles.  These principles serve as the backbone for much of today’s management philosophy.

“These practices and processes of modern management have been built around a small nucleus of core principles: standardization, specialization, hierarchy, alignment, planning, and control, and the use of extrinsic rewards to shape human behavior.”

How To Maximize Operational Efficiency and Reliability in Large-Scale Organizations

It’s not by chance that the early management thinkers came to the same conclusions.  They were working on the same problems in a similar context.  Of course, the challenge now is that the context has changed, and the early management principles are often like fish out of water.

“These principles were elucidated early in the 20th century by a small band of pioneering management thinkers -- individuals like Henri Fayol, Lyndall Urwick, Luther Gullick, and Max Weber. While each of these theorists had a slightly different take on the philosophical foundations of modern management, they all agreed on the principles just enumerated. This concordance is hardly surprising, since they were all focusing on the same problem: how to maximize operational efficiency and reliability in large-scale organizations. Nearly 100 years on, this is still the only problem that modern management is fully competent to address.”

If your management philosophy and guiding principles are nothing more than a set of hand me downs from previous generations, it might be time for a re-think.

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