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Architecture

Running Windows Containers on Azure Service Fabric

Xebia Blog - Thu, 02/09/2017 - 12:37
Background Since the release of Service Fabric runtime version 5.4.145, Microsoft added a (preview) feature to run Windows Containers on Windows Server 2016. The Linux version already supported this for a while. This post explains why Containers are useful and how to get it to work. What is Service Fabric? Most companies have a lot of applications

In-memory noSQL DBMS Client in Big Data Cluster

This is guest post by Sergei Sheinin, creator of the 2DX Web UI Database Cluster Framework, a low latency big data cluster with in-memory noSQL DBMS Web Browser client.

When I began working in the field of data management the disconnect between rigid structure of relational database tables and free form of documents managed by end users and their businesses stood out as a technical and managerial hurdle. On the one hand there were strict definitions of normalized relational database models and unstructured document formats on the other. Often the users in charge of changing document structures held organizational responsibilities far removed from database modeling or programming. On one occasion I was involved in a project where call center operators made on the fly decisions to update a document structure based on phone conversations with customers. Such updates had to be streamed into a relational back-end creating havoc in database structure and build of table columns.

In seeking a permanent solution I researched merits of Entity-Attribute-Value database schema and its applications. This technique proved successful in enabling front end users to modify relational-bound documents through performing updates to structure described in their metadata. However application of EAV raised its own issues, for example accommodation of updated document metadata at times required changes to definitions of the relational tables, attention of developers due to complexity of application layer in client-server interoperability, rapidly growing fact tables and performance of multiple join statements in select queries...

Categories: Architecture

Running Windows Containers on Azure Service Fabric – Part II

Xebia Blog - Wed, 02/08/2017 - 09:27
The previous post showed how you can create an unsecure Service Fabric test cluster in Azure, and how to run a Windows Container on it. In this follow up post, I’ll show you what’s going on inside the cluster, using the Docker command line. Knowledge about this can be very useful when troubleshooting. Verify your container

Running Windows Containers on Azure Service Fabric

Xebia Blog - Wed, 02/08/2017 - 09:17
Background Since the release of Service Fabric runtime version 5.4.145, Microsoft added a (preview) feature to run Windows Containers on Windows Server 2016. The Linux version already supported this for a while. This post explains why Containers are useful and how to get it to work. What is Service Fabric? Most companies have a lot of

Tester in an agile team: a necessity or dispensable?

Xebia Blog - Tue, 02/07/2017 - 17:13
Let’s imagine it’s the year 2025 and we peek inside an average IT company to take a look at the software development teams working there: what are the chances that there will still be a person who is a tester in each of these teams? Some of you will say: “of course they’ll be gone,

Part 2 of Thinking Serverless —  Platform Level Issues 

This is a guest repost by Ken Fromm, a 3x tech co-founder — Vivid Studios, Loomia, and Iron.io. Here's Part 1.

Job processing at scale at high concurrency across a distributed infrastructure is a complicated feat. There are many components involvement — servers and controllers to process and monitor jobs, controllers to autoscale and manage servers, controllers to distribute jobs across the set of servers, queues to buffer jobs, and whole host of other components to ensure jobs complete and/or are retried, and other critical tasks that help maintain high service levels. This section peels back the layers a bit to provide insight into important aspects within the workings of a serverless platform.

Throughput

Throughput has always been the coin of the realm in computer processing — how quickly can events, requests, and workloads be processed. In the context of a serverless architecture, I’ll break throughput down further when discussing both latency and concurrency. At the base level, however, a serverless architecture does provide a more beneficial architecture than legacy applications and large web apps when it comes to throughput because it provide for far better resource utilization.

In a post by Travis Reeder on What is Serverless Computing and Why is it Important he addresses this topic.

Cost and optimal use of resources is a huge reason to do serverless. If you are a big company with a bunch of apps/APIs/microservices, you are currently running those things 24/7 and they are using resources 100% of the time, no matter if they are in use or not. With a FaaS infrastructure, instead of running apps 24/7, you can execute functions for any number of apps on demand and share all the same resources. Theoretically, you could reduce waste (idle time) to almost nothing while still providing fast response time. For a FaaS provider, this cost savings is passed up to the end user, the developer. For an enterprise, this can reduce capex and opex big time.

Another way of looking at it is that by moving to more discrete tasks that can run in universal platform with self-contained dependencies, tasks can run anytime anywhere across a serverless architecture. This is in contrast to a set of stand alone monolithic applications whereby operations teams have to spend significant cycles arbitrating which applications to scale, when, and how. (A serverless architecture can also increase throughput of application and feature development but much has been said in this regard as it relates to microservices and functions as a service.)

A Graph of Tasks and Projects

The graph below shows a set of tasks over time for a single account on the a serverless platform. The overarching yellow line indicates all tasks for an account and the other lines represent projects within the account. The project lines should be viewed as a microservice or a specific set of application functions. A few years ago, the total set would have been built as a traditional web application and hosted as a long-running application. As you can see, however, each service or set of functions has a different workload characteristic. Managing the aggregated set at an application level is far more complex than managing at the task level within a serverless platform, not to mention the resource savings by scaling commodity task servers as opposed to much more complex application servers.

All Tasks (Application View) vs Specific Tasks (Serverless View)

Latency
Categories: Architecture

Top 5 Ingredients for developing Cloud Native Applications

Xebia Blog - Mon, 02/06/2017 - 07:50
Introduction Cloud Native Applications is a trend in IT that promises to develop and deploy applications at scale fast and cost-efficient by leveraging cloud services to get run-time platform capabilities such as performance, scalability and security out of the box. Teams are able to focus on delivering functionality to increase the pace of innovation.  Everything

Being an Agile Security Officer: pwn the process

Xebia Blog - Sat, 02/04/2017 - 20:15
This is the third part of my 'Being an Agile Security Officer series'. As mentioned in my previous blog, in the Agile world the Product Owner is the person who translates business and customer desires into work items for the teams. To do this, product owners have several techniques and means at their disposal. In

Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For February 3rd, 2017

Hey, it's HighScalability time:


 

We live in interesting times. F/A-18 Super Hornets Launch drone swarm.
If you like this sort of Stuff then please support me on Patreon.
  • 100 billion: words needed to train large networks; 73,653: hard drives at Backblaze; 300 GB hour: raw 4k footage; 1993: server running without rebooting; 64%: of money bet is on the Patriots; 950,000: insect species; 374,000: people employed by solar energy; 10: SpaceX launched Iridium Next satellites; $1 billion: Pokémon Go revenue; 1.2 Billion: daily active Facebook users; $7.17 billion: Apple service revenue; 45%: invest in private cloud this year; 

  • Quoteable Quotes:
    • @kevinmarks: #msvsummit @varungyan: Google's scale is about 10^10 RPCs per second in our microservices
    • language: "Order and chaos are not a properties of things, but relations of an observer to something observed - the ability for an observer to distinguish or specify pattern."
    • general_ai: Doing anything large on a machine without CUDA is a fool's errand these days. Get a GTX1080 or if you're not budget constrained, get a Pascal-based Titan. I work in this field, and I would not be able to do my job without GPUs -- as simple as that. You get 5-10x speedup right off the bat, sometimes more. A very good return on $600, if you ask me.
    • Al-Khwarizmi: Maybe I'm just not good at it and I'm a bit bitter, but my feeling is that this DL [deep learning] revolution is turning research in my area from a battle of brain power and ingenuity to a battle of GPU power and economic means
    • Space Rogue: pcaps or it didn't happen
    • LtAramaki: Everyone thinks they understand SOLID, and when they discuss it with other people who say they understand SOLID, they think the other party doesn't understand SOLID. Take it as you will. I call this the REST phenomenon.
    • evaryont: I don’t see this as them [Google] trying to “seize” a corner of the web, but rather Google taking it’s paranoia to the next level. If they can’t ever trust anyone in the system [Certificate Authority], why not create your own copy of the system that no one else can use? Being able to have perfect security from top to bottom, similar to their recently announced custom chips they put in every one of their servers.
    • David Press: The benefits of SDN are less about latency and uptime and more about flexibility and programmability.
    • Benedict Evans: Web 2.0 was followed not by anything one could call 3.0 but rather a basic platform shift...one can see the rise of machine learning as a fundamental new enabling technology...one can see quite a lot of hardware building blocks for augmented reality glasses...so the things that are emerging at the end of the mobile S-Curve might also be the beginning of the next curve. 
    • @kevinmarks: 20% people have 0 microservices in production - the rest are already running microservices
    • @joeerl: You've got to be joking - should be 1M clients/server at least
    • SikhGamer: We considered using RabbitMQ at work but ultimately opted for SNS and SQS instead. Main reason being that we cared about delivering value and functionality. Over the cost of yet managing another resource. And the problems of reliability become Amazon's problem. Not ours.
    • DataStax: A firewall is the simplest, most effective means to secure a database. Sounds complicated, but it’s so easy a government agent could do it.
    • @danielbryantuk: "If you think good architecture is expensive, try bad architecture" @KevlinHenney #OOP2017
    • Peter Dizikes: The new method [wisdom from crowds] is simple. For a given question, people are asked two things: What they think the right answer is, and what they think popular opinion will be. The variation between the two aggregate responses indicates the correct answer.
    • Philip Ball: Looked at this way, life can be considered as a computation that aims to optimize the storage and use of meaningful information. So living organisms can be regarded as entities that attune to their environment by using information to harvest energy and evade equilibrium.
    • Ed Sutton: The study shows the effectiveness of personality targeting by showing that marketers can attract up to 63% more clicks and up to 1400% more conversions in real-life advertising campaigns on Facebook when matching products and marketing messages to consumers’ personality characteristics.
    • Pete Trbovitch: Today’s mobile app ecosystem most closely resembles the PC shareware era. Apps that are offered free to download can carry an ad-supported income model, paid extended content, or simply bonus features to make the game easier to beat. The bar to entry is as low as it’s ever been 
    • @BenedictEvans: Global mainframe capacity went up 4-5x from 2000-2010. ‘Dead’ technology can have a very long half-life
    • @searls: I keep seeing teams spend months building custom infrastructure that could be done in 20 minutes with Heroku, Github, Travis. Please stop.
    • @mdudas: Starbucks says popularity of its mobile app has created long lines at pickup counters & led to drop in transactions.
    • @cdixon: Software eats networking: Nicira (NSX) will generate $1B revenue for VMWare this year
    • raubitsj: With respect to vibration: we [Google] found vibration caused by adjacent drives in some of our earlier drive chassis could cause off-track writes. This will cause future reads to the data to return uncorrectable read errors. Based on Backblaze's methodology they will likely call out these drives as failed based on SMART or RAID/ReedSolomon sync errors.

  • Well this is different. GitLab live streamed the handling of their GitLab.com Database Incident - 2017/01/31. It wasn't what you would call riveting, but that's an A+++ for transparency. They even took audience questions during the process. What went wrong? The snippets function was DDoSd which generated a large increase of data to the database so the slaves were not able to keep up with the replication state. WAL transaction files that were no longer in the production backlog were being requested so transaction logs were missed. They were starting the copy again from a known good state then things went sideways. They were lucky to have a 6 hour old backup and that's what they were restoring too. Sh*te happens, how the team handled it and their knowledge of the system should give users confidence going forward.

  • OK, this turned out to be false, but nobody doubted it could be true or where things are going in the future. Hotel ransomed by hackers as guests locked out of rooms.

  • Interesting use of Lambda by AirBnB. StreamAlert: Real-time Data Analysis and Alerting. There's an evolution from compiling software using libraries that must be in the source tree; running software that requires downloading lots of package from a repository; and now using services that require a lot of other services to be available in the environment for a complex pipeline to run. StreamAlert just doesn't use Lambda, it also uses Kinesis, SNS, S3, Cloudwatch, KMS, and IAM. Each step is both a deeper level of lock-in and an enabler of richer functionality. What does StreamAlert do?: a real-time data analysis framework with point-in-time alerting. StreamAlert is unique in that it’s serverless, scalable to TB’s/hour, infrastructure deployment is automated and it’s secure by default. 

Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)...

Categories: Architecture

Performance, Scalability, and High Availability: 3 Key Infrastructure Adaptability Requirements

This is a guest post by Tony Branson

Performance, scalability, and HA are often used interchangeably, and any confusion about them can result in unrealistic metrics and deployment delays. It is important to invest your time and understand the differences among these three approaches before you invest your money in resilient systems.

Performance

Categories: Architecture

How to create your own Lint rule

Xebia Blog - Thu, 02/02/2017 - 08:12
When you are part of a multi-team project in Android, it becomes relatively hard to have a common understanding of how components should be used. This is where Android Lint can help you! In this blog we will show you how you can write your own Lint rules and test them. As an example, we

Run Functional (Coded) UI Tests in your VSTS Release Pipeline

Xebia Blog - Wed, 02/01/2017 - 17:08
Today I was trying to run some CodedUI test from my VSTS Release pipeline. The process is quite straightforward but there were some tiny catches I’d like to share with you Let me first show the pipeline I have created First of all, WINRM. It is always a search for me to see what’s wrong.

Notes on setting up Elasticsearch, Kibana and Fluentd on Ubuntu

Agile Testing - Grig Gheorghiu - Wed, 02/01/2017 - 00:28
I've been experimenting with an EFK stack (with Fluentd replacing Logstash) and I hasten to write down some of my notes. I could have just as well used Logstash, but my goal is to also use the EFK stack for capturing logs out of Kubernetes clusters, and I wanted to become familiar with Fluentd, which is a Cloud Native Computing Foundation project.

1) Install Java 8

On Ubuntu 16.04:

# apt-get install openjdk-8-jre-headless

On Ubuntu 14.04:

# add-apt-repository -y ppa:webupd8team/java
# apt-get update
# apt-get -y install oracle-java8-installer

2) Download and install Elasticsearch (latest version is 5.1.2 currently)

# wget https://artifacts.elastic.co/downloads/elasticsearch/elasticsearch-5.1.2.deb
# dpkg -i elasticsearch-5.1.2.deb

Edit /etc/default/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml and set

network.host: 0.0.0.0

# service elasticsearch restart
3) Download and install Kibana

# wget https://artifacts.elastic.co/downloads/kibana/kibana-5.1.2-amd64.deb
# dpkg -i kibana-5.1.2-amd64.deb

Edit /etc/kibana/kibana.yml and set

server.host: "local_ip_address"

# service kibana restart
4) Install Fluentd agent (td-agent)
On Ubuntu 16.04:
# curl -L https://toolbelt.treasuredata.com/sh/install-ubuntu-xenial-td-agent2.sh | sh
On Ubuntu 14.04:
# curl -L https://toolbelt.treasuredata.com/sh/install-ubuntu-trusty-td-agent2.sh | sh

Install Fluentd elasticsearch plugin (note that td-agent comes with its own gem installer):
# td-agent-gem install fluent-plugin-elasticsearch

5) Configure Fluentd agent
To specify the Elasticsearch server to send the local logs to, use a match stanza in /etc/td-agent/td-agent.conf:
<match **>  @type elasticsearch  logstash_format true  host IP_ADDRESS_OF_ELASTICSEARCH_SERVER  port 9200  index_name fluentd  type_name fluentd.project.stage.web01</match>
Note that Fluentd is backwards compatible with logstash, so if you set logstash_format true, Elasticsearch will create an index called logstash-*. Also, port 9200 needs to be open from the client to the Elasticsearch server.
I found it useful to set the type_name property to a name specific to the client running the Fluentd agent. For example, if you have several projects/tenants, each with multiple environments (dev, stage, prod) and each environment with multiple servers, you could use something like type_name fluentd.project.stage.web01. This label will then be parsed and shown in Kibana and will allow you to easily tell the source of a given log entry.
If you want Fluentd to parse Apache logs and send the log entries to Elasticsearch, use stanzas of this form in td-agent.conf:
<source>  type tail  format apache2  path /var/log/apache2/mysite.com-access.log  pos_file /var/log/td-agent/mysite.com-access.pos  tag apache.access</source>
<source>  type tail  format apache2  path /var/log/apache2/mysite.com-ssl-access.log  pos_file /var/log/td-agent/mysite.com-ssl-access.pos  tag apache.ssl.access</source>
For syslog logs, use:
<source>  @type syslog  port 5140  bind 0.0.0.0  tag system.local</source>
Restart td-agent:
# service td-agent restart
Inspect the td-agent log file:
# tail -f /var/log/td-agent/td-agent.log
Some things I've had to do to fix errors emitted by td-agent:
  • change permissions on apache log directory and log files so they are readable by user td-agent
  • make sure port 9200 is open from the client to the Elasticsearch server

That's it in a nutshell. In the next installment, I'll show how to secure the communication between the Fluentd agent and the Elasticsearch server.

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Who's Hiring?
  • GoCardless is building the payments network for the internet. We’re looking for DevOps Engineers to help scale our infrastructure so that the thousands of businesses using our service across Europe can take payments. You will be part of a small team that sets the direction of the GoCardless core stack. You will think through all the moving pieces and issues that can arise, and collaborate with every other team to drive engineering efforts in the company. Please apply here.

  • InnoGames is looking for Site Reliability Engineers. Do you not only want to play games, but help building them? Join InnoGames in Hamburg, one of the worldwide leading developers and publishers of online games. You are the kind of person who leaves systems in a better state than they were before. You want to hack on our internal tools based on django/python, as well as improving the stability of our 5000+ Debian VMs. Orchestration with Puppet is your passion and you would rather automate stuff than touch it twice. Relational Database Management Systems aren't a black hole for you? Then apply here!

  • Contentful is looking for a JavaScript BackEnd Engineer to join our team in their mission of getting new users - professional developers - started on our platform within the shortest time possible. We are a fun and diverse family of over 100 people from 35 nations with offices in Berlin and San Francisco, backed by top VCs (Benchmark, Trinity, Balderton, Point Nine), growing at an amazing pace. We are working on a content management developer platform that enables web and mobile developers to manage, integrate, and deliver digital content to any kind of device or service that can connect to an API. See job description.

  • The New York Times is looking for a Software Engineer for its Delivery/Site Reliability Engineering team. You will also be a part of a team responsible for building the tools that ensure that the various systems at The New York Times continue to operate in a reliable and efficient manner. Some of the tech we use: Go, Ruby, Bash, AWS, GCP, Terraform, Packer, Docker, Kubernetes, Vault, Consul, Jenkins, Drone. Please send resumes to: technicaljobs@nytimes.com
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Categories: Architecture

Building, testing and deploying precompiled Azure Functions

Xebia Blog - Tue, 01/31/2017 - 16:00
Azure functions are great to build small specialized services really fast. When you create an Azure Functions project by using the built-in template from the SDK in Visual Studio you’ll automatically get a function made in a CSX file. This looks like plain old C# but in fact it is actually  is C# Script. When

Verbal Turn Indicators For Intercultural Product Owners

Xebia Blog - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 19:30
Jujutsu exams are coming up. One of the things that examiners want to see in jujutsu is the use of go-no-sen, sen-no-sen and tai-no-sen. Go-no-sen means that you respond to an action of your opponent, tai-no-sen means you act simultaneously and sen-no-sen means you take the initiative and act before the opponent has a chance.

Part 1 of Thinking Serverless — How New Approaches Address Modern Data Processing Needs 

This is a guest repost by Ken Fromm, a 3x tech co-founder — Vivid Studios, Loomia, and Iron.io.

First I should mention that of course there are servers involved. I’m just using the term that popularly describes an approach and a set of technologies that abstracts job processing and scheduling from having to manage servers. In a post written for ReadWrite back in 2012 on the future of software and applications, I described “serverless” as the following.

The phrase “serverless” doesn’t mean servers are no longer involved. It simply means that developers no longer have to think that much about them. Computing resources get used as services without having to manage around physical capacities or limits. Service providers increasingly take on the responsibility of managing servers, data stores and other infrastructure resources…Going serverless lets developers shift their focus from the server level to the task level. Serverless solutions let developers focus on what their application or system needs to do by taking away the complexity of the backend infrastructure.

At the time of that post, the term “serverless” was not all that well received, as evidenced by the comments on Hacker News. With the introduction of a number of serverless platforms and a significant groundswell on the wisdom of using microservices and event-driven architectures, that backlash has fortunately subsided.

A Sample Use Case

Since it is useful to have an example in mind as I discuss issues and concerns in developing a serverless app, I will use the example of a serverless pipeline for processing email and detecting spam. It is event-driven in that when an email comes in, it will spawn a series of jobs or functions intended to operate specifically on that email.

In this pipeline, you may have tasks that perform parsing of text, images, links, mail attributes, and other items or embedded objects in the email. Each item or element might have different processing requirements which in turn would entail one or more separate tasks as well as even its own processing pipeline or sequence. An image link, for example, might be analyzed across several different processing vectors to determine the content and veracity of the image. Depending on the message scoring and results — spam or not — various courses of actions will then be taken, which would likely, in turn, involve other serverless functions.

Thinking at the Task Level
Categories: Architecture

A better way (and script) to add a Service Principal in Azure for VSTS

Xebia Blog - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 16:53
From Visual Studio Team Services (VSTS) it’s possible to deploy to an Azure Subscription using an Active Directory Service Principal. The Microsoft documentation refers to a blog post which describes a 3-clicks and a manual way to setup this principal. Although the information on the blog post for the 3-clicks setup is still actual, the script link

Running Powershell Pester unit test in a VSTS build pipeline

Xebia Blog - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 16:34
When you are developing Powershell scripts, creating some unit tests will help you in monitoring the quality of the scripts. Writing some tests will give you some assurance that your code still works after you make some changes. Writing Powershell unit tests can be done with Pester. Pester will enable you to test your Powershell scripts from

3 key ingredients that make you a better developer

Xebia Blog - Mon, 01/30/2017 - 10:21
IT is a booming business, but that doesn’t mean everyone who’s drawn to it will become a great developer. Many students sign up for an IT education for the wrong reasons. I've had classmates who enrolled in IT-related degree programs because they liked gaming or working with computers. Maybe they created a website for a