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Architecture

### CRC - Components, Responsibilities, Collaborations

Coding the Architecture - Simon Brown - Sat, 08/23/2014 - 09:46

I was reading Dan North Visits Osper and was pleasantly surprised to see Dan mention CRC modelling. CRC is a great technique for the process of designing software, particularly when used in a group/workshop environment. It's not a technique that many people seem to know about nowadays though.

A Google search will yield lots of good explanations on the web, but basically CRC is about helping to identify the classes needed to implement a particular feature, use case, user story, etc. You basically walk through the feature from the start and whenever you identify a candidate class, you write the name of it on a 6x4 index card, additionally annotating the card with the responsibilities of the class. Every card represents a separate class. As you progress through the feature, you identify more classes and create additional cards, annotating the cards with responsibilities and also keeping a note of which classes are collaborating with one another. Of course, you can also refactor your design by splitting classes out or combining them as you progress. When you're done, you can dry-run your feature by walking through the classes (e.g. A calls B to do X, which in turn requests Y from C, etc).

Much of what you'll read about CRC on the web discusses how the technique is useful for teaching OO design at the class level, but I like using it at the component level when faced with architecting a software system given a blank sheet of paper. The same principles apply, but you're identifying components (or services, microservices, etc) rather than classes. When you've done this for a number of significant use cases, you end up with a decent set of CRC cards representing the core components of your software system.

From this, you can start to draw some architecture diagrams using something like my C4 model. Since the cards represent components, you can simply lay out the cards on paper, draw lines between them and you have a component diagram. Each of those components needs to be running in an execution environment (e.g. a web application, database, mobile app, etc). If you draw boxes around groups of components to represent these execution environments, you have a containers diagram. Step up one level further and you can create a simple system context diagram to show how your system interacts with the outside world. My Simple Sketches for Diagramming your Software Architecture article provides more information about the C4 model and the resulting diagrams, but hopefully you get the idea.

CRC then ... yes, it's a great technique for collaborative design, particularly when applied at the component level. And it's a nice starting point for creating software architecture diagrams too.

Categories: Architecture

### Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For August 22nd, 2014

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

Exterminate! 1,024 small, mobile, three-legged machines that can move and communicate using infrared laser beams.
• 1.6 billion: facts in Google's Knowledge Vault built by bots; 100: lightening strikes every second
• Quotable Quotes:
• @stevendborrelli: There's a common feeling here at #MesosCon that we at the beginning of a massive shift in the way we manage infrastructure.
• @deanwampler: 2000 machine service will see > 10 machine crashes per day. Failure is normal. (Google) #Mesoscon
• @peakscale: "not everything revolves around docker" /booted from room immediately
• @deanwampler: Twitter has most of their critical infrastructure on Mesos, O(10^4) machines, O(10^5) tasks, O(10^0) SREs supporting it. #Mesoscon
• @adrianco: Dig yourself a big data hole, then drown in your data lake...
• bbulkow:  I saw huge Go uptake at OSCON. I met one guy doing log processing easily at 1M records per minute on a single amazon instance, and knew it would scale.
• @julian_dunn: clearly, running Netflix on a mainframe would have avoided this problem

• Programming is the new way in an old tradition of using new ideas to explain old mysteries. Take the new Theory of Everything, doesn't it sound a lot like OO programming?: According to constructor theory, the most fundamental components of reality are entities—“constructors”—that perform particular tasks, accompanied by a set of laws that define which tasks are actually possible for a constructor to carry out. Then there's Our Mathematical Universe, which posits that the attributes of objects are the objects: all physical properties of an electron, say, can be described mathematically; therefore, to him, an electron is itself a mathematical structure. Any data modeler knows how faulty is this conceit. We only model our view relative to a problem, not universally. Modelers also have another intuition, that all attributes arise out of relationships between entities and that entities may themselves not have attributes. So maybe physics and programming have something to do with each other after all?

• Love this. Multi-Datacenter Cassandra on 32 Raspberry Pi’s. Over the top lobby theatrics is a signature Silicon Valley move.

• Computation is all around us. Jellyfish Use Novel Search Strategy: instead of using a consistent Lévy walk approach, barrel jellyfish also employ a bouncing technique to locate prey. These large jellies ride the currents to a new depth in search of food. If a meal is not located in the new location, the creature rides the currents back to its original location.

• Two months early. 300k under budget. Building a custom CMS using a Javascript based Single Page App (SPA), a Clojure back end, a set of small Clojure based micro services sitting on top of MongoDB, hosted in Rackspace.

• While Twitter may not fight against the impersonation of certain Journalism professors, it does fight spam with a large sword. Here's how that sword of righteousness was forged: Fighting spam with BotMaker. The main challenge: applying rules defined using their own rule language with a low latency. Spam is detected in three stages: real-time, before the tweet enters the system; near real-time, on the write path; periodic, in the background. The result: a 40% reduction in spam and faster response time to new spam attacks.

• An architecture of small apps. A PHP/Symfony CMS called Megatron takes 10 seconds to render a page. Pervasive slowness leads to constant problems with cache clearing, timeouts, server spin ups and downs, cache warmup. What to do? As an answer an internal Yammer conversation on different options is shared. The major issue is dumping their CMS for a microservices based approach. Interesting discussion that covers a lot of ground.

Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)...

Categories: Architecture

### Azure: New DocumentDB NoSQL Service, New Search Service, New SQL AlwaysOn VM Template, and more

ScottGu's Blog - Scott Guthrie - Thu, 08/21/2014 - 21:39

Today we released a major set of updates to Microsoft Azure. Today’s updates include:

• DocumentDB: Preview of a New NoSQL Document Service for Azure
• Search: Preview of a New Search-as-a-Service offering for Azure
• Virtual Machines: Portal support for SQL Server AlwaysOn + community-driven VMs
• Web Sites: Support for Web Jobs and Web Site processes in the Preview Portal
• Azure Insights: General Availability of Microsoft Azure Monitoring Services Management Library
• API Management: Support for API Management REST APIs

All of these improvements are now available to use immediately (note that some features are still in preview).  Below are more details about them: DocumentDB: Announcing a New NoSQL Document Service for Azure

I’m excited to announce the preview of our new DocumentDB service - a NoSQL document database service designed for scalable and high performance modern applications.  DocumentDB is delivered as a fully managed service (meaning you don’t have to manage any infrastructure or VMs yourself) with an enterprise grade SLA.

As a NoSQL store, DocumentDB is truly schema-free. It allows you to store and query any JSON document, regardless of schema. The service provides built-in automatic indexing support – which means you can write JSON documents to the store and immediately query them using a familiar document oriented SQL query grammar. You can optionally extend the query grammar to perform service side evaluation of user defined functions (UDFs) written in server-side JavaScript as well.

DocumentDB is designed to linearly scale to meet the needs of your application. The DocumentDB service is purchased in capacity units, each offering a reservation of high performance storage and dedicated performance throughput. Capacity units can be easily added or removed via the Azure portal or REST based management API based on your scale needs. This allows you to elastically scale databases in fine grained increments with predictable performance and no application downtime simply by increasing or decreasing capacity units.

Over the last year, we have used DocumentDB internally within Microsoft for several high-profile services.  We now have DocumentDB databases that are each 100s of TBs in size, each processing millions of complex DocumentDB queries per day, with predictable performance of low single digit ms latency.  DocumentDB provides a great way to scale applications and solutions like this to an incredible size.

DocumentDB also enables you to tune performance further by customizing the index policies and consistency levels you want for a particular application or scenario, making it an incredibly flexible and powerful data service for your applications.   For queries and read operations, DocumentDB offers four distinct consistency levels - Strong, Bounded Staleness, Session, and Eventual. These consistency levels allow you to make sound tradeoffs between consistency and performance. Each consistency level is backed by a predictable performance level ensuring you can achieve reliable results for your application.

DocumentDB has made a significant bet on ubiquitous formats like JSON, HTTP and REST – which makes it easy to start taking advantage of from any Web or Mobile applications.  With today’s release we are also distributing .NET, Node.js, JavaScript and Python SDKs.  The service can also be accessed through RESTful HTTP interfaces and is simple to manage through the Azure preview portal. Provisioning a DocumentDB account

To get started with DocumentDB you provision a new database account. To do this, use the new Azure Preview Portal (http://portal.azure.com), click the Azure gallery and select the Data, storage, cache + backup category, and locate the DocumentDB gallery item.

Once you select the DocumentDB item, choose the Create command to bring up the Create blade for it.

In the create blade, specify the name of the service you wish to create, the amount of capacity you wish to scale your DocumentDB instance to, and the location around the world that you want to deploy it (e.g. the West US Azure region):

Once provisioning is complete, you can start to manage your DocumentDB account by clicking the new instance icon on your Azure portal dashboard.

The keys tile can be used to retrieve the security keys to use to access the DocumentDB service programmatically. Developing with DocumentDB

DocumentDB provides a number of different ways to program against it. You can use the REST API directly over HTTPS, or you can choose from either the .NET, Node.js, JavaScript or Python client SDKs.

The JSON data I am going to use for this example are two families:

// AndersonFamily.json file

{<?xml:namespace prefix = "o" />

"id": "AndersenFamily",

"lastName": "Andersen",

"parents": [

{ "firstName": "Thomas" },

{ "firstName": "Mary Kay" }

],

"children": [

{ "firstName": "John", "gender": "male", "grade": 7 }

],

"pets": [

{ "givenName": "Fluffy" }

],

"address": { "country": "USA", "state": "WA", "city": "Seattle" }

}

and

// WakefieldFamily.json file

{

"id": "WakefieldFamily",

"parents": [

{ "familyName": "Wakefield", "givenName": "Robin" },

{ "familyName": "Miller", "givenName": "Ben" }

],

"children": [

{

"familyName": "Wakefield",

"givenName": "Jesse",

"gender": "female",

},

{

"familyName": "Miller",

"givenName": "Lisa",

"gender": "female",

}

],

"pets": [

{ "givenName": "Goofy" },

],

"address": { "country": "USA", "state": "NY", "county": "Manhattan", "city": "NY" }

}

Using the NuGet package manager in Visual Studio, I can search for and install the DocumentDB .NET package into any .NET application. With the URI and Authentication Keys for the DocumentDB service that I retrieved earlier from the Azure Management portal, I can then connect to the DocumentDB service I just provisioned, create a Database, create a Collection, Insert some JSON documents and immediately start querying for them:

using (client = new DocumentClient(new Uri(endpoint), authKey))

{

var database = new Database { Id = "ScottsDemoDB" };

database = await client.CreateDatabaseAsync(database);

var collection = new DocumentCollection { Id = "Families" };

//DocumentDB supports strongly typed POCO objects and also dynamic objects

//persist the documents in DocumentDB

//very simple query returning the full JSON document matching a simple WHERE clause

var query = client.CreateDocumentQuery(collection.SelfLink, "SELECT * FROM Families f WHERE f.id = 'AndersenFamily'");

var family = query.AsEnumerable().FirstOrDefault();

Console.WriteLine("The Anderson family have the following pets:");

foreach (var pet in family.pets)

{

Console.WriteLine(pet.givenName);

}

//select JUST the child record out of the Family record where the child's gender is male

query = client.CreateDocumentQuery(collection.DocumentsLink, "SELECT * FROM c IN Families.children WHERE c.gender='male'");

var child = query.AsEnumerable().FirstOrDefault();

Console.WriteLine("The Andersons have a son named {0} in grade {1} ", child.firstName, child.grade);

//cleanup test database

}

As you can see above – the .NET API for DocumentDB fully supports the .NET async pattern, which makes it ideal for use with applications you want to scale well.

Server-side JavaScript Stored Procedures

If I wanted to perform some updates affecting multiple documents within a transaction, I can define a stored procedure using JavaScript that swapped pets between families. In this scenario it would be important to ensure that one family didn’t end up with all the pets and another ended up with none due to something unexpected happening. Therefore if an error occurred during the swap process, it would be crucial that the database rollback the transaction and leave things in a consistent state.  I can do this with the following stored procedure that I run within the DocumentDB service:

function SwapPets(family1Id, family2Id) {

var context = getContext();

var collection = context.getCollection();

var response = context.getResponse();

collection.queryDocuments(collection.getSelfLink(), 'SELECT * FROM Families f where f.id  = "' + family1Id + '"', {},

function (err, documents, responseOptions) {

var family1 = documents[0];

collection.queryDocuments(collection.getSelfLink(), 'SELECT * FROM Families f where f.id = "' + family2Id + '"', {},

function (err2, documents2, responseOptions2) {

var family2 = documents2[0];

var itemSave = family1.pets;

family1.pets = family2.pets;

family2.pets = itemSave;

collection.replaceDocument(family1._self, family1,

function (err, docReplaced) {

collection.replaceDocument(family2._self, family2, {});

});

response.setBody(true);

});

});

}

If an exception is thrown in the JavaScript function due to for instance a concurrency violation when updating a record, the transaction is reversed and system is returned to the state it was in before the function began.

It’s easy to register the stored procedure in code like below (for example: in a deployment script or app startup code):

//register a stored procedure

StoredProcedure storedProcedure = new StoredProcedure

{

Id = "SwapPets",

};

And just as easy to execute the stored procedure from within your application:

//execute stored procedure passing in the two family documents involved in the pet swap

dynamic result = await client.ExecuteStoredProcedureAsync<dynamic>(storedProcedure.SelfLink, "AndersenFamily", "WakefieldFamily");

If we checked the pets now linked to the Anderson Family we’d see they have been swapped. Learning More

It’s really easy to get started with DocumentDB and create a simple working application in a couple of minutes.  The above was but one simple example of how to start using it.  Because DocumentDB is schema-less you can use it with literally any JSON document.  Because it performs automatic indexing on every JSON document stored within it, you get screaming performance when querying those JSON documents later. Because it scales linearly with consistent performance, it is ideal for applications you think might get large.

Search: Announcing preview of new Search as a Service for Azure

I’m excited to announce the preview of our new Azure Search service.  Azure Search makes it easy for developers to add great search experiences to any web or mobile application.

Azure Search provides developers with all of the features needed to build out their search experience without having to deal with the typical complexities that come with managing, tuning and scaling a real-world search service.  It is delivered as a fully managed service with an enterprise grade SLA.  We also are releasing a Free tier of the service today that enables you to use it with small-scale solutions on Azure at no cost. Provisioning a Search Service

To get started, let’s create a new search service.  In the Azure Preview Portal (http://portal.azure.com), navigate to the Azure Gallery, and choose the Data storage, cache + backup category, and locate the Azure Search gallery item.

Locate the “Search” service icon and select Create to create an instance of the service:

You can choose from two Pricing Tier options: Standard which provides dedicated capacity for your search service, and a Free option that allows every Azure subscription to get a free small search service in a shared environment.

The standard tier can be easily scaled up or down and provides dedicated capacity guarantees to ensure that search performance is predictable for your application.  It also supports the ability to index 10s of millions of documents with lots of indexes.

The free tier is limited to 10,000 documents, up to 3 indexes and has no dedicated capacity guarantees. However it is also totally free, and also provides a great way to learn and experiment with all of the features of Azure Search. Managing your Azure Search service

After provisioning your Search service, you will land in the Search blade within the portal - which allows you to manage the service, view usage data and tune the performance of the service:

I can click on the Scale tile above to bring up the details of the number of resources allocated to my search service. If I had created a Standard search service, I could use this to increase the number of replicas allocated to my service to support more searches per second (or to provide higher availability) and the number of partitions to give me support for higher numbers of documents within my search service. Creating a Search Index

Now that the search service is created, I need to create a search index that will hold the documents (data) that will be searched. To get started, I need two pieces of information from the Azure Portal, the service URL to access my Azure Search service (accessed via the Properties tile) and the Admin Key to authenticate against the service (accessed via the Keys title).

Using this search service URL and admin key, I can start using the search service APIs to create an index and later upload data and issue search requests. I will be sending HTTP requests against the API using that key, so I’ll setup a .NET HttpClient object to do this as follows:

HttpClient client = new HttpClient();

I’ll start by creating the search index. In this case I want an index I can use to search for contacts in my dataset, so I want searchable fields for their names and tags; I also want to track the last contact date (so I can filter or sort on that later on) and their address as a lat/long location so I can use it in filters as well. To make things easy I will be using JSON.NET (to do this, add the NuGet package to your VS project) to serialize objects to JSON.

var index = new

{

name = "contacts",

fields = new[]

{

new { name = "id", type = "Edm.String", key = true },

new { name = "fullname", type = "Edm.String", key = false },

new { name = "tags", type = "Collection(Edm.String)", key = false },

new { name = "lastcontacted", type = "Edm.DateTimeOffset", key = false },

new { name = "worklocation", type = "Edm.GeographyPoint", key = false },

}

};

var response = client.PostAsync("https://scottgu-dev.search.windows.net/indexes/?api-version=2014-07-31-Preview",

new StringContent(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(index), Encoding.UTF8, "application/json")).Result;

response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();

You can run this code as part of your deployment code or as part of application initialization. Populating a Search Index

Azure Search uses a push API for indexing data. You can call this API with batches of up to 1000 documents to be indexed at a time. Since it’s your code that pushes data into the index, the original data may be anywhere: in a SQL Database in Azure, DocumentDb database, blob/table storage, etc.  You can even populate it with data stored on-premises or in a non-Azure cloud provider.

Note that indexing is rarely a one-time operation. You will probably have an initial set of data to load from your data source, but then you will want to push new documents as well as update and delete existing ones. If you use Azure Websites, this is a natural scenario for Webjobs that can run your indexing code regularly in the background.

Regardless of where you host it, the code to index data needs to pull data from the source and push it into Azure Search. In the example below I’m just making up data, but you can see how I could be using the result of a SQL or LINQ query or anything that produces a set of objects that match the index fields we identified above.

var batch = new

{

value = new[]

{

new

{

id = "221",

tags = new string[] { "work" },

lastcontacted = DateTimeOffset.UtcNow,

worklocation = new

{

type = "Point",

coordinates = new [] { -122.131577, 47.678581 }

}

},

new

{

id = "714",

fullname = "Catherine Abel",

tags = new string[] { "work", "personal" },

lastcontacted = DateTimeOffset.UtcNow,

worklocation = new

{

type = "Point",

coordinates = new [] { -121.825579, 47.1419814}

}

}

}

};

var response = client.PostAsync("https://scottgu-dev.search.windows.net/indexes/contacts/docs/index?api-version=2014-07-31-Preview",

new StringContent(JsonConvert.SerializeObject(batch), Encoding.UTF8, "application/json")).Result;

response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();

Searching an Index

After creating an index and populating it with data, I can now issue search requests against the index. Searches are simple HTTP GET requests against the index, and responses contain the data we originally uploaded as well as accompanying scoring information.

I can do a simple search by executing the code below, where searchText is a string containing the user input, something like abel work for example:

var response = client.GetAsync("https://scottgu-dev.search.windows.net/indexes/contacts/docs?api-version=2014-07-31-Preview&search=" + Uri.EscapeDataString(searchText)).Result;

response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();

foreach (var result in results.value)

{

Console.WriteLine("FullName:" + result.fullname + " score:" + (double)result["@search.score"]);

}

Learning More

The above is just a simple scenario of what you can do.  There are a lot of other things we could do with searches. For example, I can use query string options to filter, sort, project and page over the results. I can use hit-highlighting and faceting to create a richer way to navigate results and suggestions to implement auto-complete within my web or mobile UI.

In this example, I used the default ranking model, which uses statistics of the indexed text and search string to compute scores. You can also author your own scoring profiles that model scores in ways that match the needs of your application.

Check out the Azure Search documentation for more details on how to get started, and some of the more advanced use-cases you can take advantage of.  With the free tier now available at no cost to every Azure subscriber, there is no longer any reason not to have Search fully integrated within your applications. Virtual Machines: Support for SQL Server AlwaysOn, VM Depot images

Last month we added support for managing VMs within the Azure Preview Portal (http://portal.azure.com).  We also released built-in portal support that enables you to easily create multi-VM SharePoint Server Farms as well as a slew of additional Azure Certified VM images.  You can learn more about these updates in my last blog post.

Today, I’m excited to announce new support for automatically deploying SQL Server VMs with AlwaysOn configured, as well as integrated portal support for community supported VM Depot images. SQL Server AlwaysOn Template

AlwaysOn Availability Groups, released in SQL Server 2012 and enhanced in SQL Server 2014, guarantee high availability for mission-critical workloads. Last year we started supporting SQL Availability Groups on Azure Infrastructure Services. In such a configuration, two SQL replicas (primary and secondary), each in its own Azure VM, are configured for automatic failover, and a listener (DNS name) is configured for client connectivity. Other components required are a file share witness to guarantee quorum in the configuration to avoid “split brain” scenarios, and a domain controller to join all VMs to the same domain. The SQL as well as the domain controller replicas are each deployed to an availability set to ensure they are in different Azure failure and upgrade domains.

Prior to today’s release, setting up the Availability Group configuration could be tedious and time consuming. We have dramatically simplified this experience through a new SQL Server AlwaysOn template in the Azure Gallery. This template fully automates the configuration of a highly available SQL Server deployment on Azure Infrastructure Services using an Availability Group.

You can find the template by navigating to the Azure Gallery within the Azure Preview Portal (http://portal.azure.com), selecting the Virtual Machine category on the left and selecting the SQL Server 2014 AlwaysOn gallery item. In the gallery details page, select Create. All you need is to provide some basic configuration information such as the administrator credentials for the VMs and the rest of the settings are defaulted for you. You may consider changing the defaults for Listener name as this is what your applications will use to connect to SQL Server.

Upon creation, 5 VMs are created in the resource group: 2 VMs for the SQL Server replicas, 2 VMs for the Domain Controller replicas, and 1 VM for the file share witness.

Once created, you can RDP to one of the SQL Server VMs to see the Availability Group configuration as depicted below:

Try out the SQL Server AlwaysOn template in the Azure Preview Portal today and give us your feedback! VM Depot in Azure Gallery

Community-driven VM Depot images have been supported on the Azure platform for a couple of years now. But prior to today’s release they weren’t fully integrated into the mainline user experience.

Today, I’m excited to announce that we have integrated community VMs  into the Azure Preview Portal and the Azure gallery. With this release, you will find close to 300 pre-configured Virtual Machine images for Microsoft Azure.

Using these images, fully functional Virtual Machines can be deployed in the Preview Portal in minutes and customized for specific use cases. Starting from base operating system distributions (such as Debian, Ubuntu, CentOS, Suse and FreeBSD) through developer stacks (such as LAMP, Ruby on Rails, Node and Django), to complete applications (such as Wordpress, Drupal and Apache Solr), there is something for everyone in VM Depot.

Try out the VM Depot images in the Azure gallery from within the Virtual Machine category. Web Sites: WebJobs and Process Management in the Preview Portal

Starting with today’s Azure release, Web Site WebJobs are now supported in the Azure Preview Portal.  You can also now drill into your Web Sites and monitor the health of any processes running within them (both to host your web code as well as your web jobs). Web Site WebJobs

Using WebJobs, you can now now run any code within your Azure Web Sites – and do so in a way that is readily parallelizable, globally scalable, and complete with remote debugging, full VS support and an optional SDK to facilitate authoring. For more information about the power of WebJobs, visit Azure WebJobs recommended resources.

With today’s Azure release, we now support two types of Webjobs: on Demand and Continuous.  To use WebJobs in the preview portal, navigate to your web site and select the WebJobs tile within the Web Site blade. Notice that the part also now shows the count of WebJobs available.

By drilling into the title, you can view existing WebJobs as well as create new OnDemand or Continuous WebJobs. Scheduled WebJobs are not yet supported in the preview portal, but expect to see this in the near future. Web Site Processes

I’m excited to announce a new feature in the Azure Web Sites experience in the Preview Portal - Websites Processes. Using Websites Process you can enumerate the different instances of your site, browse through the different processes on each instance, and even drill down to the handles and modules associated with each process. You can then check for detailed information like version, language and more.

In addition, you also get rich monitoring for CPU, Working Set and Thread count at the process level.  Just like with Task Manager for Windows, data collection begins when you open the Websites Processes blade, and stops when you close it.

This feature is especially useful when your site has been scaled out and is misbehaving in some specific instances but not in others. You can quickly identify runaway processes, find open file handles, and even kill a specific process instance. Monitoring and Management SDK: Programmatic Access to Monitoring Data

The Azure Management Portal provides built-in monitoring and management support that makes it easy for you to track the health of your applications and solutions deployed within Azure.

If you want to programmatically access monitoring and management features in Azure, you can also now use our .NET SDK from Nuget. We are releasing this SDK to general availability today, so you can now use it for your production services!

For example, if you want to build your own custom dashboard that shows metric data from across your services, you can get that metric data via the SDK:

// Create the metrics client by obtain the certificate with the specified thumbprint.

MetricsClient metricsClient = new MetricsClient(new CertificateCloudCredentials(SubscriptionId, GetStoreCertificate(Thumbprint)));

// Build the resource ID string.

string resourceId = ResourceIdBuilder.BuildWebSiteResourceId("webtest-group-WestUSwebspace", "webtests-site");

// Get the metric definitions.

MetricDefinitionCollection metricDefinitions = metricsClient.MetricDefinitions.List(resourceId, null, null).MetricDefinitionCollection;

// Display the available metric definitions.

Console.WriteLine("Choose metrics (comma separated) to list:");

int count = 0;

foreach (MetricDefinition metricDefinition in metricDefinitions.Value)

{

Console.WriteLine(count + ":" + metricDefinition.DisplayName);

count++;

}

// Ask the user which metrics they are interested in.

var desiredMetrics = Console.ReadLine().Split(',').Select(x =>  metricDefinitions.Value.ToArray()[Convert.ToInt32(x.Trim())]);

// Get the metric values for the last 20 minutes.

MetricValueSetCollection values = metricsClient.MetricValues.List(

resourceId,

desiredMetrics.Select(x => x.Name).ToList(),

"",

desiredMetrics.First().MetricAvailabilities.Select(x => x.TimeGrain).Min(),

DateTime.UtcNow - TimeSpan.FromMinutes(20),

DateTime.UtcNow

).MetricValueSetCollection;

// Display the metric values to the user.

foreach (MetricValueSet valueSet in values.Value )

{

Console.WriteLine(valueSet.DisplayName + " for the past 20 minutes:");

foreach (MetricValue metricValue in valueSet.MetricValues)

{

Console.WriteLine(metricValue.Timestamp + "\t" + metricValue.Average);

}

}

Console.Write("Press any key to continue:");

We support metrics for a variety of services with the monitoring SDK:

Service

Typical metrics

Frequencies

Cloud services

CPU, Network, Disk

5 min, 1 hr, 12 hrs

Virtual machines

CPU, Network, Disk

5 min, 1 hr, 12 hrs

Websites

Requests, Errors, Memory, Response time, Data out

1 min, 1 hr

Mobile Services

API Calls, Data Out, SQL performance

1 hr

Storage

Requests, Success rate, End2End latency

1 min, 1 hr

Service Bus

Messages, Errors, Queue length, Requests

5 min

HDInsight

Containers, Apps running

15 min

If you’d like to manage advanced autoscale settings that aren’t possible to do in the Portal, you can also do that via the SDK. For example, you can construct autoscale based on custom metrics – you can autoscale by anything that is returned from MetricDefinitions.

All of the documentation on the SDK is available on MSDN. API Management: Support for Services REST API

We launched the Azure API Management service into preview in May of this year.  The API Management service enables  customers to quickly and securely publish APIs to partners, the public development community, and even internal developers.

Today, I’m excited to announce the availability of the API Management REST API which opens up a large number of new scenarios. It can be used to manage APIs, products, subscriptions, users and groups in addition to accessing your API analytics. In fact, virtually any management operation available in the Management API Portal is now accessible programmatically - opening up a host of integration and automation scenarios, including directly monetizing an API with your commerce provider of choice, taking over user or subscription management, automating API deployments and more.

We've even provided an additional SAS (Shared Access Signature) security option. An integrated experience in the publisher portal allows you to generate SAS tokens - so securely calling your API service couldn’t be easier. In just three easy steps:

1. Enable the API on the System Settings page on the Publisher Portal
3. Start sending requests to the API, providing the token with every request

See the REST API reference for full details. Delegation of user registration and product subscription

The new API Management REST API makes it easy to automate and integrate other processes with API management. Many customers integrating in this way already have a user account system and would prefer to use this existing resource, instead of the built-in functionality provided by the Developer Portal. This feature, called Delegation, enables your existing website or backend to own the user data, manage subscriptions and seamlessly integrate with API Management's dynamically generated API documentation.

It's easy to enable Delegation: in the Publisher Portal navigate to the Delegation section and enable Delegated Sign-in and Sign up, provide the endpoint URL and validation key and you're good to go. For more details, check out the how-to guide. Summary

Today’s Microsoft Azure release enables a ton of great new scenarios, and makes building applications hosted in the cloud even easier.

If you don’t already have a Azure account, you can sign-up for a free trial and start using all of the above features today.  Then visit the Microsoft Azure Developer Center to learn more about how to build apps with it.

Hope this helps,

Scott

Categories: Architecture, Programming

### Two lessons on haproxy checks and swap space

Agile Testing - Grig Gheorghiu - Thu, 08/21/2014 - 02:03
Let's assume you want to host a Wordpress site which is not going to get a lot of traffic. You want to use EC2 for this. You still want as much fault tolerance as you can get at a decent price, so you create an Elastic Load Balancer endpoint which points to 2 (smallish) EC2 instances running haproxy, with each haproxy instance pointing in turn to 2 (not-so-smallish) EC2 instances running Wordpress (Apache + MySQL).
You choose to run haproxy behind the ELB because it gives you more flexibitity in terms of load balancing algorithms, health checks, redirections etc. Within haproxy, one of the Wordpress servers is marked as a backup for the other, so it only gets hit by haproxy when the primary one goes down. On this secondary Wordpress instance you set up MySQL to be a slave of the primary instance's MySQL.
Here are two things (at least) that you need to make sure you have in this scenario:
1) Make sure you specify the httpchk option in haproxy.cfg, otherwise the primary server will not be marked as down even if Apache goes down. So you should have something like:
backend servers-http  server s1 10.0.1.1:80 weight 1 maxconn 5000 check port 80  server s2 10.0.1.2:80 backup weight 1 maxconn 5000 check port 80  option httpchk GET /
2) Make sure you have swap space in case the memory on the Wordpress instances gets exhausted, in which case random processes will be killed by the oom process (and one of those processes can be mysqld). By default, there is no swap space when you spin up an Ubuntu EC2 instance. Here's how to set up a 2 GB swapfile:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile1 bs=1024 count=2097152mkswap /swapfile1chmod 0600 /swapfile1swapon /swapfile1echo "/swapfile1 swap swap defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab

### Help! Too Many Incidents! - Capacity Assignment Policy In Agile Teams

Xebia Blog - Wed, 08/20/2014 - 22:26

As an Agile coach, scrum master, product owner, or team member you probably have been in the situation before in which more work is thrown at the team than the team has capacity to resolve.

In case of work that is already known this basically is a scheduling problem of determining the optimal order that the team will complete the work so as to maximise the business value and outcome. This typically applies to the case that a team is working to build or extend a new product.

The other interesting case is e.g. operational teams that work on items that arrive in an ad hoc way. Examples include production incidents. Work arrives ad hoc and the product owner needs to allocate a certain capacity of the team to certain types of incidents. E.g. should the team work on database related issues, or on front-end related issues?

If the team has more than enough capacity the answer is easy: solve them all! This blog will show how to determine what capacity of the team is best allocated to what type of incident.

What are we trying to solve?

Before going into details, let's define what problem we want to solve.

Assume that the team recognises various types of incidents, e.g. database related, GUI related, perhaps some more. Each type of incident will have an associated average resolution time. Also, each type will arrive at the team at a certain rate, the input rate. E.g. database related incidents arrive 3 times per month, whereas GUI related incidents occur 4 times per week. Finally, each incident type will have different operational costs assigned to it. The effect of database related incidents might be that 30 users are unable to work. GUI related incidents e.g. affect only part of the application affecting a few users.

At any time, the team has a backlog of incidents to resolve. With this backlog an operational cost is concerned. This operational we want to minimise.

What makes this problem interesting is that we want to minimise this cost under the constraint of having limited number of resources, or capacity. The product owner may wish to deliberately ignore GUI type of incidents and let the team work on database related incidents. Or assign 20% of the capacity to GUI related and 80% of the available capacity to database related incidents?

Types of Work

For each type of work we define the input rate, production rate, cost rate, waiting time, and average resolution time:

$\lambda_i = \text{average input rate for type 'i'},$ \lambda_i = \text{average input rate for type '$i$'},

$C_i = \text{operational cost rate for type 'i'},$ C_i = \text{operational cost rate for type '$i$'},

$x_i = \text{average resolution time for type 'i'},$ x_i = \text{average resolution time for type '$i$'},

$w_i = \text{average waiting time for type 'i'},$ w_i = \text{average waiting time for type '$i$'},

$s_i = \text{average time spend in the system for type 'i'},$ s_i = \text{average time spend in the system for type '$i$'},

$\mu_i = \text{average production rate for type 'i'}$ \mu_i = \text{average production rate for type '$i$'}

Some items get resolved and spend the time $s_i = x_i + w_i$s_i = x_i + w_i in the system. Other items never get resolved and spend time $s_i = w_i$ s_i = w_i in the system.

In the previous blog Little's Law in 3D the average total operational cost is expressed as:

$\text{Average operational cost for type 'i'} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda_i C_i \overline{S_i(S_i+T)}$ \text{Average operational cost for type '$i$'} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda_i C_i \overline{S_i(S_i+T)}

To get the goal cost we need to sum this for all work types 'i'.

System

The process for work items is that they enter the system (team) as soon as they are found or detected. When they are found these items will contribute immediately to the total operational cost. This stops as soon as they are resolved. For some the product owner decides that the team will start working on them. The point that the team start working on an item the waiting time $w_i$w_i is known and on average they spend a time $x_i$x_i before it is resolved.

As the team has limited resources, they cannot work on all the items. Over time the average time spent in the system will increase. As shown in the previous blog Why Little's Law Works...Always Little's Law still applies when we consider a finite time interval.

This process is depicted below:

$\overline{M} = \text{fixed team capacity},$ \overline{M} = \text{fixed team capacity},

$\overline{M_i} = \text{team capacity allocated to working on problems type 'i'},$ \overline{M_i} = \text{team capacity allocated to working on problems type '$i$'},

$\overline{N} = \text{total number of items in the system}$ \overline{N} = \text{total number of items in the system}

The total number of items allowed in the 'green' area is restricted by the team's capacity. The team may set a WiP limit to enforce this. In contrast the number of items in the 'orange' area is not constrained: incidents flow into the system as they are found and leave the system only after they have been resolved.

Without going into the details, the total operational cost can be rewritten in terms of $x_i$x_i and $w_i$w_i:

(1) $\text{Average operational cost for type 'i'} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda_i C_i \overline{w_i(w_i+T)} + \mu_i C_i \overline{x_i} \,\, \overline{w_i} + \frac{1}{2} \mu_i C_i \overline{x_i(x_i+T)}$ \text{Average operational cost for type '$i$'} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda_i C_i \overline{w_i(w_i+T)} + \mu_i C_i \overline{x_i} \,\, \overline{w_i} + \frac{1}{2} \mu_i C_i \overline{x_i(x_i+T)}

What are we trying to solve? Again.

Now that I have shown the system, defined exactly what I mean with the variables, I will refine what exactly we will be solving.

Find $M_i$M_i such that this will minimise (1) under the constraint that the team has a fixed and limited capacity.

Important note

The system we are considering is not stable. Therefore we need to be careful when applying and using Little's Law. To circumvent necessary conditions for Little's Law to hold, I will consider the average total operational cost over a finite time interval. This means that we will minimise the average of the cost over the time interval from start to a certain time. As the accumulated cost increases over time the average is not the same as the cost at the end of the time interval.

Note: For our optimisation problem to make sense the system needs to be unstable. For a stable system it follows from Little's Law that the average input rate for type i is equal to the average production rate for type 'i'. In case there is no optimisation since we cannot choose those to be different. The ability to choose them differently is the essence of our optimisation problem.

Little's Law

At this point Little's Law provides a few relations between the variables $M, M_i, N, w_i, x_i, \mu_i, \lambda_i$ M, M_i, N, w_i, x_i, \mu_i, \lambda_i . These relations we can use to find what values of $M_i$M_i will minimise the average total operational cost.

As described in the previous blog Little's Law in 3D Little's Law gives relations for the system as a whole, per work item type and for each subsystem. These relations are:

$\overline{N_i} = \lambda_i \,\, \overline{s_i}$ \overline{N_i} = \lambda_i \,\, \overline{s_i}

$\overline{N_i} - \overline{M_i} = \lambda_i \,\, \overline{w_i}$ \overline{N_i} - \overline{M_i} = \lambda_i \,\, \overline{w_i}

$\overline{M_i} = \mu_i \,\,\overline{x_i}$ \overline{M_i} = \mu_i \,\,\overline{x_i}

$M_1 + M_2 + ... = M$ M_1 + M_2 + ... = M

The latter relation is not derived from Little's Law but merely states that total capacity of the team is fixed.

Note that Little's Law also has given us relation (1) above.

Result

Again, without going into the very interesting details of the calculation I will just state the result and show how to use it to calculate the capacities to allocate to certain work item types.

First, for each work item type determine the product between the average input rate ($\lambda_i$\lambda_i) and the average resolution time ($x_i$x_i). The interpretation of this is the average number of new incidents arriving while the team works on resolving an item. Put the result in a row vector and name it 'V':

(2) $V = (\lambda_1 x_1, \lambda_2 x_2, ...)$ V = (\lambda_1 x_1, \lambda_2 x_2, ...)

Next, add all at the components of this vector and denote this by $||V||$||V||.

Second, multiply the result of the previous step for each item by the quotient of the average resolution time ($x_i$x_i) and the cost rate ($C_i$C_i). Put the result in a row vector and name it 'W':

(3) $W = (\lambda_1 x_1 \frac{x_1}{C_1}, \lambda_2 x_2 \frac{x_2}{C_2}, ...)$ W = (\lambda_1 x_1 \frac{x_1}{C_1}, \lambda_2 x_2 \frac{x_2}{C_2}, ...)

Again, add all components of this row vector and call this $||W||$||W||.

Then, the capacity to allocate to item of type 'k' is proportional to:

(4) $\frac{M_k}{M} \sim W_k - \frac{1}{M} (W_k ||V|| - V_k ||W||)$ \frac{M_k}{M} \sim W_k - \frac{1}{M} (W_k ||V|| - V_k ||W||)

Here, $V_k$V_k denotes the k-th component of the row vector 'V'. So, $V_1$V_1 is equal to $\lambda_1 x_1$\lambda_1 x_1. Likewise for $W_k$W_k.

Finally, because these should add up to 1, each of (4) is divided by the sum of all of them.

Example

If this seems complicated, let's do a real calculation and see how the formulas of the previous section are applied.

Two types of incidents

As a first example consider a team that collects data on all incidents and types of work. The data collected over time includes the resolution time, dates that the incident occurred and the date the issue was resolved. The product owner assigns a business value to each incident which corresponds to the cost rate of the incident which in this case is measured in the number of (business) uses affected. Any other means of assigning a cost rate will do also.

The team consist of 6 team members, so the team's capacity $M$M is equal to 12 where each member is allowed to work on a maximum of 2 incidents.

From their data they discover that they have 2 main types of incidents. See the so-called Cycle Time Histogram below.

The picture above shows two types of incidents, having typical average resolution times of around 2 days and 2 weeks. Analysis shows that these are related to the GUI and database components respectively. From their data the team determines that they have an average input rate of 6 per week and 2 per month respectively. The average cost rate for each type is 10 per day and 200 per day respectively.

That is, the database related issues have: $\lambda = 2 \text{per month} = 2/20 = 1/10 \text{per day}$\lambda = 2 \text{per month} = 2/20 = 1/10 \text{per day} , $C = 200 \text{per day}$ C = 200 \text{per day} , and resolution time $x = 2 \text{weeks} = 10 \text{days}$ x = 2 \text{weeks} = 10 \text{days} . While the GUI related issues have: $\lambda = 6 \text{per week} = 6/5 \text{per day}$ \lambda = 6 \text{per week} = 6/5 \text{per day} , $C = 10 \text{per day}$ C = 10 \text{per day} , and resolution time $x = 2 \text{days}$ x = 2 \text{days} .

The row vector 'V' becomes (product of $\lambda$\lambda and $x$x:

$V = (1/10 * 10, 6/5 * 2) = (1, 12/5)$ V = (1/10 * 10, 6/5 * 2) = (1, 12/5) ,  $||V|| = 1 + 12/5 = 17/5$ ||V|| = 1 + 12/5 = 17/5

The row vector 'W' becomes:

$W = (1/10 * 10 * 10 / 200, 6/5 * 2 * 2 / 10) = (1/20, 12/25)$ W = (1/10 * 10 * 10 / 200, 6/5 * 2 * 2 / 10) = (1/20, 12/25) , $||W|| = 1/20 + 12/25 = 53/100$ ||W|| = 1/20 + 12/25 = 53/100

Putting this together we obtain the result that a percentage of the team's capacity should be allocated to resolve database related issues that is equal to:

$M_\text{database}/M \sim 1/20 - 1/12 *(1/20 * 17/5 - 1 * 53/100) = 1/20 + 1/12 * 36/100 = 1/20 + 3/100 = 8/100 = 40/500$ M_\text{database}/M \sim 1/20 - 1/12 *(1/20 * 17/5 - 1 * 53/100) = 1/20 + 1/12 * 36/100 = 1/20 + 3/100 = 8/100 = 40/500

and a percentage should be allocated to work on GUI related items that is

$M_\text{GUI}/M \sim 12/25 - 1/12 *(12/25 * 17/5 - 12/5 * 53/100) = 12/25 - 1/12 * 9/125 = 12/25 - 3/500 = 237/500$ M_\text{GUI}/M \sim 12/25 - 1/12 *(12/25 * 17/5 - 12/5 * 53/100) = 12/25 - 1/12 * 9/125 = 12/25 - 3/500 = 237/500

Summing these two we get as the sum 277/500. This means that we allocate 40/237 ~ 16% and 237/277 ~ 84% of the team's capacity to database and GUI work items respectively.

Kanban teams may define a class of service to each of these incident types and put a WiP limit on the database related incident lane of 2 cards and a WiP limit of 10 to the number of cards in the GUI related lane.

Scrum teams may allocate part of the team's velocity to user stories related to database and GUI related items based on the percentages calculated above.

Conclusion

Starting with the expression for the average total operational cost I have shown that this leads to an interesting optimisation problem in which we ant to determine the optimal allocation of a team's capacity to different work item type in such a way that it will on average minimise the average total operation cost present in the system.

The division of the team's capacity over the various work item types is determined by the work item types' average input rate, resolution time, and cost rate and is proportional to

(4) $\frac{M_k}{M} \sim W_k - \frac{1}{M} (W_k ||V|| - V_k ||W||)$ \frac{M_k}{M} \sim W_k - \frac{1}{M} (W_k ||V|| - V_k ||W||)

The data needed to perform this calculation is easily gathered by teams. Teams may use a cycle time histogram to find appropriate work item types. See this article on control charts for more information.

### BE Agile before you Become Agile

Xebia Blog - Wed, 08/20/2014 - 20:49

People dislike change. It disrupts our routines and we need to invest to adapt. We only go along if we understand why change is needed and how we benefit from it.
The key to intrinsic motivation is to experience the benefits of the change yourself, rather than having someone else explain it to you.

Agility is almost an acronym for change. It is critical to let people experience the benefits of Agility before asking them to buy into this new way of working. This post explains how to create a great Agile experience in a fun, simple, cost efficient and highly effective way. BEing agile, before BEcoming agile!

The concept of a “Company Innovation Day”

Have you seen this clip about Dan Pinks’ Drive? According to him, the key factors for more motivation and better performance are: autonomy, mastery and purpose.
If you have some scrum experience this might sound familiar, right? That is because these 3 things really tie in nicely with agile and scrum, for example:

Autonomy = being able to self-direct;
• Let the team plan their own work
• Let the team decide how to best solve problems

Mastery = learning, applying and mastering new skills and abilities, a.k.a. "get better at stuff";
• Retrospect and improve
• Learn, apply and master new skills to get achieve goals as a team.

Purpose = understanding necessity and being as effective as possible;
• Write user stories that add value
• Define sprint goals that tie in to product- and business goals.

In the clip, the company "Atlassian" is mentioned. This is the company that makes "JIRA", one of the most popular Agile support tools. Atlassian tries to facilitate autonomy, mastery and purpose by organizing one day per quarter of “management free” innovation. They call it a “ship it day”.

Now this is cool! According to Dan, their people had fun (most important), fixed a whole array of bugs and delivered new product ideas as well. They have to ship all this in one day, again showing similarities with the time boxed scrum approach. When I first saw this, I realized that this kind of fast delivery of value is pretty much something you would like to achieve with Agile Scrum too! Doing Scrum right would feel like a continuous series of ship it days.

My own experience with innovation days

Recently I organized an innovation day with a client (for tips see on how to organize yours, click here). We invited the whole department to volunteer. If you didn’t feel like it, you could just skip it and focus on sprint work. Next we promoted the day and this resulted in a growing list of ideas coming in.
Except for the framing of the day, the formation of ideas and teams was totally self-organized and also result driven as we asked for the expected result. Ultimately we had 20 initiatives to be completed in one day.
On the day itself, almost everyone joined in and people worked hard to achieve results at the end of the day.
The day ended in presenting the results and having pizzas. Only some ideas just missed the deadline, but most were finished including usable and fresh new stuff with direct business value. When looking at the photos of that day it struck me that 9 out of ten photos showed smiling faces. Sweet!

The first innovation day was concluded with an evaluation. In my opinion evaluation is essential, because this is the perfect moment discuss deeper lessons and insights. Questions like; “how can we create the innovation day energy levels during sprints”, and “how can we utilize self-organizing abilities more” are invaluable as they could lead to new insights, inspiration and experiments for day-to-day operations.

The value of an innovation day as a starting point for Agile

All in all, I think an innovation day is the perfect way to get people experiencing the power of Agile.
Doing the innovation day on “day one” offers huge benefits when added to standard stuff like training and games. This is because the context is real. You have a real goal, a real timebox and you need to self-organize to achieve the desired result.
People doing the work get to experience their potential and the power of doing stuff within a simplified context. Managers get to experience unleashing the human potential when they focus only on the context and environment for that day.
I can only imagine the amazement and renewed joy when people experience the possibilities coming from a strong waterfall setting. All that good stuff from just a one-day investment!

Conclusion

It would be great if you would start out an Agile change initiative with an innovation day. Get people enthusiastic and inspired (e.g. motivated for change) first and then tell them why it works and how we are going to apply the same principles in day-to-day operations. This will result in less friction and resistance and give people a better sense for where they are heading.

Do you want to start doing innovation days or do you want to share your experience, feel free to leave a comment below.

### Part 2: The Cloud Does Equal High performance

This a guest post by Anshu Prateek, Tech Lead, DevOps at Aerospike and Rajkumar Iyer, Member of the Technical Staff at Aerospike.

In our first post we busted the myth that cloud != high performance and outlined the steps to 1 Million TPS (100% reads in RAM) on 1 Amazon EC2 instance for just $1.68/hr. In this post we evaluate the performance of 4 Amazon instances when running a 4 node Aerospike cluster in RAM with 5 different read/write workloads and show that the r3.2xlarge instance delivers the best price/performance. Several reports have already documented the performance of distributed NoSQL databases on virtual and bare metal cloud infrastructures: Categories: Architecture ### Creating a Company Where Everyone Gives Their Best “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do.” —Steve Jobs What does it take to create a company where everybody gives their best where they have their best to give? It takes empathy. It also takes encouraging people to be zestful, zany, and zealous. It takes bridging the gap between the traits that make people come alive, and the traits that traditional management practices value. In the book The Future of Management, Gary Hamel walks through what it takes to create a company where everyone gives their best so that employees thrive and companies create sustainable competitive advantage. Resilience and Creativity: The Traits that Differentiate Human Beings from Other Species Resilience and creativity are what separate us from the pack. “Ask your colleagues to describe the distinguishing characteristics of your company, and few are likely to mention adaptability and inventiveness. Yet if you ask them to make a list of the traits that differentiate human beings from other species, resilience and creativity will be near the top of the list. We see evidence of these qualities every day -- in ourselves and in those around us. “ We Work for Organizations that Aren't Very Human People are adaptive and creative, but they often work for organizations that are not. “All of us know folks who've switched careers in search of new challenges or a more balanced life. We know people who've changed their consumption habits for the sake of the planet. We have friends and relatives who've undergone a spiritual transformation, or risen to the demands of parenthood, or overcome tragedy. Every day we meet people who write blogs, experiment with new recipes, mix up dance tunes, or customize their cars. As human beings, we are amazingly adaptable and creative, yet most of us work for companies that are not. In other words, we work for organizations that aren't very human.” Modern Organizations Deplete Natural Resilience and Creativity Why do so many organizations underperform? They ignore or devalue the capabilities that make us human. “There seems to be something in modern organizations that depletes the natural resilience and creativity of human beings, something that literally leaches these qualities out of employees during daylight hours. The culprit? Management principles and processes that foster discipline, punctuality, economy, rationality, and order, yet place little value on artistry, nonconformity, originality, audacity, and élan. To put it simply, most companies are only fractionally human because they make room for only a fraction of the qualities and capabilities that make us human. Billions of people show up for work every day, but way too many of them are sleepwalking. The result: organizations that systematically underperform their potential.” Adaptability and Innovation Have Become the Keys to Competitive Success There’s a great big gap between what makes people great and the management systems that get in the way. “Weirdly, many of those who labor in the corporate world--from lowly admins to high powered CEOs--seem resigned to this state of affairs. They seem unperturbed by the confounding contrast between the essential nature of human beings and the essential nature of the organization in which they work. In years past, it might have been possible to ignore this incongruity, but no longer--not in a world where adaptability and innovation have become the sine qua non of competitive success. The challenge: to reinvent our management systems so they inspire human beings to bring all of their capabilities to work every day.” The Human Capabilities that Contribute to Competitive Success Hamel offers his take on what the relative contribution of human capabilities that contribute to value creation, recognizing that we now live in a world where efficiency and discipline are table stakes. Passion 35% Creativity 25% Initiative 20% Intellect 15% Diligence 5% Obedience 0% 100% “The human capabilities that contribute to competitive success can be arrayed in a hierarchy. At the bottom is obedience--an ability to take direction and follow rules. This is the baseline. Next up the ladder is diligence. Diligent employees are accountable. They don't take shortcuts. They are conscientious and well-organized. Knowledge and intellect are on the next step. Most companies work hard to hire intellectually gifted employees. They value smart people who are eager to improve their skills and willing to borrow best practices from others. Beyond intellect lies initiative. People with initiative don't wait to be asked and don't wait to be told. They seek out new challenges and are always searching for new ways to add value. Higher still lies the gift of creativity. Creative people are inquisitive and irrepressible. They're not afraid of saying stupid things. They start a lot of conversations with, 'Wouldn't it be cool if ..." And finally, at the top lies passion.” The Power of Passion Passion makes us do dumb things. But it’s also the key to doing great things. Via Via The Future of Management: “Passion can make people do stupid things, but it's the secret sauce that turns intent into accomplishment. People with passion climb over obstacles and refuse to give up. Passion is contagious and turns one-person crusades into mass movements. As the English novelist E.M. Forster put it, 'One person with passion is better than forty people merely interested.'” Obedience is Worth Zip in Terms of Competitive Advantage Rule-following employees won’t help you change the world. “I'm not suggesting that obedience is literally worth nothing. A company where no one followed any rules would soon descend into anarchy. Instead, I'm arguing that rule-following employees are worth zip in terms of their competitive advantage they generate. In a world with 4 billion nearly distributed souls, all eager to climb the ladder of economic progress, it's not hard to find billable, hardworking employees. And what about intelligence? For years we've been told we're living in the knowledge economy; but as knowledge itself becomes commoditized, it will lose much of its power to create competitive advantage.” Obedience, Diligence, and Expertise Can Be Bought for Next to Nothing You can easily buy obedience, diligence, and expertise from around the world. But that’s not what will make you the next great company or the next great thing or a great place to work. “Today, obedience, diligence, and expertise can be bought for next to nothing. From Bangalore to Guangzhou, they have become global commodities. A simple example: turn over your iPod, and you'll find six words engraved on the back that foretell the future of competition: 'Designed in California. Made in China.' Despite the equal billing, the remarkable success of Apple's music business owes relatively little to the company's network of Asian subcontractors. It is a credit instead to the imagination of Apple's designers, marketers, and lawyers. Obviously not every iconic product is going to be designed in California, not nor manufactured in China. “ You Need Employees that are Zestful, Zany, and Zealous If you want to bring out the best in people and what they are capable of, aim for zestful, zany, and zealous. “The point, though, is this: if you want to capture the economic high ground in the creative economy, you need employees who are more than acquiescent, attentive, and astute--they must also be zestful, zany, and zealous.” If you want to bring out your best, then break our your zest and get your zane on. You Might Also Like The Principles of Modern Management How Employees Lost Empathy for their Work, for the Customer, and for the Final Product No Slack = No Innovation The Drag of Old Mental Models on Innovation and Change The New Competitive Landscape The New Realities that Call for New Organizational and Management Capabilities Who’s Managing Your Company Categories: Architecture, Programming ### Agile 2014 – speaking and attending; a summary Xebia Blog - Tue, 08/19/2014 - 17:14 So Agile 2014 is over again… and what an interesting conference it was. What did I find most rewarding? Meeting so many agile people! My first conclusion was that there were experts like us agile consultants or starting agile coaches, ScrumMasters and other people getting acquainted with our cool agile world. Another trend I noticed was the scaled agile movement. Everybody seems to be involved in that somehow. Some more successful than others; some more true to agile than others. What I missed this year was the movement of scrum or agile outside IT although my talk about scrum for marketing had a lot of positive responses. Everybody I talked to was interested in hearing more information about it. There was a talk maybe even two about hardware agile but I did not found a lot of buzz around it. Maybe next year? I do feel that there is potential here. I believe Fullstack product development should be the future. Marketing and IT teams? Hardware and software teams? Splitting these still sounds as design and developer teams to me. But what a great conference it was. I met a lot of awesome people. Some just entering the agile world; some authors of books I had read which got me further in the agile movement. I talked to the guys from Spotify. The company which is unique in its agile adoption / maturity. And they don’t even think that they are there yet. But then again will somebody ever truly BE agile ..? I met the guys from scrum.inc who developed a great new scaled framework. Awesome ideas on that subject and awesome potential to treat it as a community created open framework; keep your eyes open for that! I attended some nice talks too; also some horrible ones. Or actually 1, which should never have been presented in a 90 minute slot in a conference like this. But lets get back to the nice stories. Lyssa Adkins had a ‘talk’ about conflicts. Fun thing was that she actually facilitated the debate about scaled agile on stage. The session could have been better but the idea and potential of the subject is great. Best session? Well probably the spotify guys. Still the greatest story out there of an agile company. The key take-out of that session for me is: agile is not an end-state, but a journey. And if you take it as serious as Spotify you might be able to make the working world a lot better. Looking at Xebia we might not even be considered to be trying agile compared to them. And that is meant in a humble way while looking up to these guys! - I know we are one of the frontiers of agile in the Netherlands. The greatest question in this session: ‘Where is the PMO in your model….’ Well you clearly understand this … Another inspiring session was the keynote session from the CFO of Statoil about beyond budgeting. This was a good story which should become bigger in the near future as this is one of the main questions I get when implementing agile in a company: “how do we plan / estimate and budget projects when we go and do agile?” Beyond budgeting at least get’s us a little closer. Long story short. I had a blast in Orlando. I learnt new things and met a lot of cool people.My main take out: Our community is growing which teaches us that we are not yet there by a long run. An awesome future is ahead! See you next year! ### Sponsored Post: Apple, Tumblr, Gawker, FoundationDB, Monitis, BattleCry, Surge, Cloudant, CopperEgg, Logentries, Couchbase, MongoDB, BlueStripe, AiScaler, Aerospike, AppDynamics, ManageEngine, Site24x7 Who's Hiring? • Apple has multiple openings. Changing the world is all in a day's work at Apple. Imagine what you could do here. • Senior Software Engineer -iOS Systems. Do you love building highly scalable, distributed web applications? Does the idea of a fast-paced environment make your heart leap? Do you want your technical abilities to be challenged every day, and for your work to make a difference in the lives of millions of people? If so, the iOS Systems Carrier Services team is looking for a talented software engineer who is not afraid to share knowledge, think outside the box, and question assumptions. Please apply here. • Software Engineering Manager, IS&T WWDR Dev Systems. 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For the full job spec and to apply, click here: http://grnh.se/t8rfbw • BattleCry, the newest ZeniMax studio in Austin, is seeking a qualified Front End Web Engineer to help create and maintain our web presence for AAA online games. This includes the game accounts web site, enhancing the studio website, our web and mobile- based storefront, and front end for support tools. http://jobs.zenimax.com/requisitions/view/540 • FoundationDB is seeking outstanding developers to join our growing team and help us build the next generation of transactional database technology. You will work with a team of exceptional engineers with backgrounds from top CS programs and successful startups. We don’t just write software. We build our own simulations, test tools, and even languages to write better software. We are well-funded, offer competitive salaries and option grants. Interested? 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Cloud monitoring has never been so easy: lightweight, elastic monitoring; root cause analysis; data visualization; smart alerts. Get Started Now. • Whitepaper Clarifies ACID Support in Aerospike. In our latest whitepaper, author and Aerospike VP of Engineering & Operations, Srini Srinivasan, defines ACID support in Aerospike, and explains how Aerospike maintains high consistency by using techniques to reduce the possibility of partitions. Read the whitepaper: http://www.aerospike.com/docs/architecture/assets/AerospikeACIDSupport.pdf. • BlueStripe FactFinder Express is the ultimate tool for server monitoring and solving performance problems. Monitor URL response times and see if the problem is the application, a back-end call, a disk, or OS resources. • aiScaler, aiProtect, aiMobile Application Delivery Controller with integrated Dynamic Site Acceleration, Denial of Service Protection and Mobile Content Management. Cloud deployable. Free instant trial, no sign-up required. http://aiscaler.com/ • ManageEngine Applications Manager : Monitor physical, virtual and Cloud Applications. • www.site24x7.com : Monitor End User Experience from a global monitoring network. If any of these items interest you there's a full description of each sponsor below. Please click to read more... Categories: Architecture ### AngularJS directives for c3.js Gridshore - Tue, 08/19/2014 - 10:19 For one of my projects we wanted to create some nice charts. Feels like something you often want but do not do because it takes to much time. This time we really needed it. We had a look at D3.js library, a very nice library but so many options and a lot to do yourself. Than we found c3.js, check the blog post by Roberto: Creating charts with C3.js. Since I do a lot with AngularJS, I wanted to integrate these c3.js charts with AngularJS. I already wrote a piece about the integration. Now I went one step further by creating a set of AngularJS directives. You can read the blog on the trifork blog: http://blog.trifork.com/2014/08/19/angularjs-directives-for-c3-js-chart-library/ The post AngularJS directives for c3.js appeared first on Gridshore. Categories: Architecture, Programming ### 1 Aerospike server X 1 Amazon EC2 instance = 1 Million TPS for just$1.68/hour

This a guest post by Anshu Prateek, Tech Lead, DevOps at Aerospike and Rajkumar Iyer, Member of the Technical Staff at Aerospike.

Cloud infrastructure services like Amazon EC2 have proven their worth with wild success. The ease of scaling up resources, spinning them up as and when needed and paying by unit of time has unleashed developer creativity, but virtualized environments are not widely considered as the place to run high performance applications and databases.

Cloud providers however have come a long way in their offerings and need a second review of their performance capabilities. After showing 1 Million TPS on Aerospike on bare metal servers, we decided to investigate cloud performance and in the process, bust the myth that cloud != high performance.

We examined a variety of Amazon instances and just discovered the recipe for processing 1 Million TPS in RAM on 1 Aerospike server on a single C3.8xlarge instance - for just $1.68/hr !!! According to internetlivestats.com, there are 7.5k new tweets per second, 45k google searches per second and 2.3 Million emails sent per second. What would you build if you could process 1 Million database transactions per second for just$1.68/hr?

Categories: Architecture

### Little's Law in 3D

Xebia Blog - Sun, 08/17/2014 - 16:21

The much used relation between average cycle time, average total work and input rate (or throughput) is known as Little's Law. It is often used to argue that it is a good thing to work on less items at the same time (as a team or as an individual) and thus lowering the average cycle time. In this blog I will discuss the less known generalisation of Little's Law giving an almost unlimited number of additional relation. The only limit is your imagination.

I will show relations for the average 'Total Operational Cost in the system' and for the average 'Just-in-Timeness'.

First I will describe some rather straightforward generalisations and in the third part some more complex variations on Little's Law.

Little's Law Variations

As I showed in the previous blogs (Applying Little's Law in Agile Games and Why Little's Law Works...Always) Little's Law in fact states that measuring the total area from left-to-right equals summing it from top-to-bottom.

Once we realise this, it is easy to see some straightforward generalisations which are well-known. I'll mention them here briefly without ging into too much details.

Subsystem

Suppose a system that consists of 1 or more subsystems, e.g. in a kanban system consisting of 3 columns we can identify the subsystems corresponding to:

1. first column (e.g. 'New') in 'red',
2. second column (e.g. 'Doing') in 'yellow',
3. third column (e.g. 'Done') in 'green'

See the figure on the right.

By colouring the subsystems different from each other we see immediately that Little's Law applies to the system as a whole as well as to every subsystem ('red' and 'yellow' area).

Note: for the average input rate consider only the rows that have the corresponding color, i.e. for the input rate of the column 'Doing' consider only the rows that have a yellow color; in this case the average input rate equals 8/3 items per round (entering the 'Doing' column). Likewise for the 'New' column.

Work Item Type

Until now I assumed only 1 type of work items. In practise teams deal with more than one different work item types. Examples include class of service lanes, user stories, and production incidents. Again, by colouring the various work item type differently we see that Little's Law applies to each individual work item type.

In the example on the right, we have coloured user stories ('yellow') and production incidents ('red'). Again, Little's Law applies to both the red and yellow areas separately.

Doing the math we se that for 'user stories' (yellow area):

• Average number in the system (N) = (6+5+4)/3 = 5 user stories,
• Average input rate ($\lambda$\lambda = 6/3 = 2 user stories per round,
• Average waiting time (W) = (3+3+3+3+2+1)/6 = 15/6 = 5/2 rounds.

As expected, the average number in the system equals the average input rate times the average waiting time.

The same calculation can be made for the production incidents which I leave as an exercise to the reader.

Expedite Items

Finally, consider items that enter and spend time in an 'expedite' lane. In Kanban an expedite lane is used for items that need special priority. Usually the policy for handling such items are that (a) there can be at most 1 such item in the system at any time, (b) the team stop working on anything but on this item so that it is completed as fast as possible, (c) they have priority over anything else, and (d) they may violate any WiP limits.

Colouring any work items blue that spend time in the expedite lane we can apply Little's Law to the expedite lane as well.

An example of the colouring is shown in the figure on the right. I leave the calculation to the reader.

3D

We can even further extend Little's Law. Until now I have considered only 'flat' areas.

The extension is that we can give each cell a certain height. See the figure to the right. A variation on Little's Law follows once we realise that measuring the volume from left-to-right is the same as calculating it from top-to-bottom. Instead of measuring areas we measure volumes instead.

The only catch here is that in order to write down Little's Law we need to give a sensible interpretation to the 'horizontal' sum of the numbers and a sensible interpretation to the 'vertical' sum of the numbers. In case of a height of '1' these are just 'Waiting Time' (W) and 'Number of items in the system' (N) respectively.

A more detailed, precise, and mathematical formulation can be found in the paper by Little himself: see section 3.2 in [Lit11].

Some Applications of 3D-Little's Law

Value

As a warming-up exercise consider as the height the (business) value of an item. Call this value 'V'. Every work item will have its own specific value.

$\overline{\mathrm{Value}} = \lambda \overline{V W}$ \overline{\mathrm{Value}} = \lambda \overline{V W}

The interpretation of this relation is that the 'average (business) value of unfinished work in the system at any time' is equal to the average input rate multiplied by the 'average of the product of cycle time and value'.

Teams may ant to minimise this while at the same time maximising the value output rate.

Total Operational Cost

As the next example let's take as the height for the cells a sequence of numbers 1, 2, 3, .... An example is shown in the figures below. What are the interpretations in this case?

Suppose we have a work item that has an operational cost of 1 per day. Then the sequence 1, 2, 3, ... gives the total cost to date. At day 3, the total cost is 3 times 1 which is the third number in the sequence.

The 'vertical' sum is just the 'Total Cost of unfinished work in the system.

For the interpretation of the 'horizontal' sum we need to add the numbers. For a work item that is in the system for 'n' days, the total is $1+2+3+...+n$1+2+3+...+n which equals $1/2 n (n+1)$1/2 n (n+1). For 3 days this gives $1+2+3=1/2 * 3 * 4 = 6$1+2+3=1/2 * 3 * 4 = 6. Thus, the interpretation of the 'horizontal' sum is $1/2 W (W+1)$1/2 W (W+1) in which 'W' represents the waiting time of the item.

Putting this together gives an additional Little's Law of the form:

$\overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W(W + 1)}$ \overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W(W + 1)}

where 'C' is the operational cost rate of a work item and $\lambda$\lambda is the (average) input rate. If instead of rounds in a game, the 'Total Cost in the system' is measured at a time interval 'T' the formula slightly changes into

$\overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W\left(W + T\right)}$ \overline{\mathrm{Cost}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda C \overline{W\left(W + T\right)}

Teams may want to minimise this which gives an interesting optimisation problem is different work item types have different associated operational cost rates. How should the capacity of the be divided over the work items? This is a topic for another blog.

Just-in-Time

For a slightly more odd relation consider items that have a deadline associated with them. Denote the date and time of the deadline by 'D'. As the height choose the number of time units before or after the deadline the item is completed. Further, call 'T' the time that the team has taken up to work on the item. Then the team finishes work on this item at time $T + W$ T + W , where 'W' represent the cycle time of the work item.

In the picture on the left a work item is shown that is finished 2 days before the deadline. Notice that the height decreases as the deadline is approached. Since it is finished 2 time units before the deadline, the just-in-timeness is 2 at the completion time.

The picture on the left shows a work item one time unit after the deadline and has an associated just-in-timeness of 1.

$\overline{\mathrm{Just-in-Time}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda \overline{|T+W-D|(|T+W-D| + 1)}$ \overline{\mathrm{Just-in-Time}} = \frac{1}{2} \lambda \overline{|T+W-D|(|T+W-D| + 1)}

This example sounds like a very exotic one and not very useful. A team might want to look at what the best time is to start working on an item so as to minimise the above variable.

Conclusion

From our 'playing around' with the size of areas and volumes and realising that counting it in different ways (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) should give the same result I have been able to derive a new set of relations.

In this blog I have rederived well-known variations on Little's Law regarding subsystems and work items types. In addition I have derived new relations for the 'Average Total Operational Cost', 'Average Value', and 'Average Just-in-Timeness'.

Together with the familiar Little's Law these give rise to interesting optimisation problems and may lead to practical guidelines for teams to create even more value.

I'm curious to hear about the variations that you can come up with! Let me know by posting them here.

References

[Lit11] John D.C. Little, "Little’s Law as Viewed on Its 50th Anniversary", 2011, Operations Research, Vol. 59 , No 3, pp. 536-549, https://www.informs.org/content/download/255808/2414681/file/little_paper.pdf

### Managing OpenStack security groups from the command line

Agile Testing - Grig Gheorghiu - Fri, 08/15/2014 - 20:47
I had an issue today where I couldn't connect to a particular OpenStack instance on port 443. I decided to inspect the security group it belongs (let's call it myapp) to from the command line:

# nova secgroup-list-rules myapp
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range   | Source Group |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| tcp         | 80        | 80      | 0.0.0.0/0  |              |
| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/24 |              |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+

Note that the IP range for port 443 is wrong. It should be all IPs and not a /24 network.

I proceeded to delete the wrong rule:

# nova secgroup-delete-rule myapp tcp 443 443 0.0.0.0/24
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range   | Source Group |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/24 |              |
+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+

Then I added back the correct rule:
# nova secgroup-add-rule myapp tcp 443 443 0.0.0.0/0                                                                   +-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range  | Source Group |+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/0 |              |+-------------+-----------+---------+------------+--------------+
Finally, I verified that the rules are now correct:
# nova secgroup-list-rules myapp                                                                                       +-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| IP Protocol | From Port | To Port | IP Range  | Source Group |+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+| tcp         | 443       | 443     | 0.0.0.0/0 |              || tcp         | 80        | 80      | 0.0.0.0/0 |              |+-------------+-----------+---------+-----------+--------------+
Of course, the real test was to see if I could now hit port 443 on my instance, and indeed I was able to.

### Creativity, INC. – by Ed Catmull

Gridshore - Fri, 08/15/2014 - 20:39

A colleague of mine, Ronald Vonk, recommended this book to me. It is a book by one of the founders of Pixar, you know from all those fantastic computer animated movies. At pixar they created an continuous changing environment where creativity should excel. It is a very interesting read if you are interested in management books that are not to heavy on theories. Ed explains very well and entertaining how they went from a small company with a vision to a huge company with a vision.

Without to much spoilers, you really need to reed the book yourself, I want to mention a few things that I remembered after reading the book.

The team is more important than the idea’s or the talent of the separate people. Take care of the team, make sure they function well and give them responsibility. Make them feel proud when they finished what they wanted to create. Always put people first.

This is something I ran into in my normal working life as well. I do think you have to enable the teams to adept and to stay as a good team. The challenge is to get others in to learn and later on replace team members or start their own team.

We would never make a film that way again. It is the managements job to take the long view, to intervene and protect our people from their willingness to pursue excellence at all costs. Not to do so would be irresponsible.

This was a remark after delivering a movie under great time stress. They pulled through, but at a cost.

Braintrust – Group of people giving feedback and ideas for improvements on a certain idea. Important is that the feedback is meant to improve the idea, not to bully the person(s) the idea originated from. It is very important that everybody is open to the feedback and not defensive. In the end it is not the braintrust that makes a decision, it is the person in charge for the product. Still this group of people is kind of the first user and therefore the feedback should not be taken to lightly.

This was something I had a long thought about, my conclusion was that I am not really good at this. I often do feel that my ideas are my babies that need to be defended. First persuade me I am wrong, o sorry, an idea that someone had was not the best.

I did not want to become a manager, I just wanted to be one of the boys and do research. When we became bigger I realised I became more important and new people did not see me as a peer or one of the guys. I realised things were starting to get hidden from me. It is no problem as long as you trust people will tell someone else that will tell the most important things to me again.

Couldn’t agree more.

You can have this very nice polished finely tuned locomotive. People think that being the driver of the train is giving them power. They feel that driving the train in the end is shaping the company. The truth is, it’s not. Driving the train does not set it’s course. The real job is laying the track.

This was an eye opener a well, something you know but is hard to put into words.

At pixar they do not have contracts. They feel that employment contracts both hurt the employer as well as the employee. If someone had a problem with the company, there wasn’t much point in complaining because they were under contract. If someone didn’t perform well, on the other hand, there was no point in confronting them about it; their contract simply wouldn’t be renewed, which might be the first time they heard about their need to improve. The whole system discouraged and devaluated day-to-day communication and was culturally dysfunctional. But since everybody was used to it, they were blind to the problem.

This is a long one, have thought about it for a while. I think for now I would be to scared to do this in a company, still I like the idea.

What is the point of hiring smart people if you don’t empower them to fix what’s broken? Often to much time is lost in making sure no mistakes will be made. Often however, it just takes a few days to find solutions for mistakes.

Keeps coming back to the same point, a manager is a facilitator, nothing more nothing less. It is a very important role, just like all the others. Think about it, it is the team, the complete team.

The post Creativity, INC. – by Ed Catmull appeared first on Gridshore.

Categories: Architecture, Programming

### Stuff The Internet Says On Scalability For August 15th, 2014

Hey, it's HighScalability time:

Somehow this seems quite appropriate. (via John Bredehoft)
• 75 acres: Pizza eaten in US daily; 270TB: Backblaze storage pod; 14nm: Intel extends Moore's Law
• Quotable Quotes
• discreteevent: The dream of reuse has made a mess of many systems.
• David Crawley: Don't think of Moore's Law in terms of technology; think of it in terms of economics and you get much greater understanding. The limits of Moore's Law is not driven by current technology. The limits of Moore's Law are really a matter of cost.
• Simon Brown: If you can't build a monolith, what makes you think microservices are the answer?
• smileysteve: The net result is that you should be able to transmit QPSK at 32GBd in 2 polarizations in maybe 80 waves in each direction. 2bits x 2 polarizations x 32G ~128Gb/s per wave or nearly 11Tb/s for 1 fiber. If this cable has 6 strands, then it could easily meet the target transmission capacity [60TB].
• Eric Brumer: Highly efficient code is actually memory efficient code.

• How to be a cloud optimist. Tell yourself: an instance is half full, it's not half empty; Downtime is temporary; Failures aren't your fault.

• Mother Earth, Motherboard by Neal Stephenson. Goes without saying it's gorgeously written. The topic: The hacker tourist ventures forth across the wide and wondrous meatspace of three continents, chronicling the laying of the longest wire on Earth. < Related to Google Invests In $300M Submarine Cable To Improve Connection Between Japan And The US. • IBM compares virtual machines and against Linux containers: Our results show that containers result in equal or better performance than VM in almost all cases. Both VMs and containers require tuning to support I/O-intensive applications. • Does Psychohistory begin with BigData? Of a crude kind, perhaps. Google uses BigQuery to uncover patterns of world history: What’s even more amazing is that this analysis is not the result of a massive custom-built parallel application built by a team of specialized HPC programmers and requiring a dedicated cluster to run on: in stark contrast, it is the result of a single line of SQL code (plus a second line to create the initial “view”). All of the complex parallelism, data management, and IO optimization is handled transparently by Google BigQuery. Imagine that – a single line of SQL performing 2.5 million correlations in just 2.5 minutes to uncover the underlying patterns of global society. • Fabian Giesen with an deep perspective on how communication has evolved to use a similar pattern. Networks all the way down (part2): anything we would call a computer these days is in fact, for all practical purposes, a heterogeneous cluster made up of various specialized smaller computers, all connected using various networks that go by different names and are specified in different standards, yet are all suspiciously similar at the architecture level; a fractal of switched, packet-based networks of heterogeneous nodes that make up what we call a single “computer”. It means that all the network security problems that plague inter-computer networking also exist within computers themselves. Implementations may change substantially over time, the interfaces – protocols, to stay within our networking terminology – stay mostly constant over large time scales, warts and all. Don't miss all that the Internet has to say on Scalability, click below and become eventually consistent with all scalability knowledge (which means this post has many more items to read so please keep on reading)... Categories: Architecture ### Hamsterdb: An Analytical Embedded Key-value Store In this post, I’d like to introduce you to hamsterdb, an Apache 2-licensed, embedded analytical key-value database library similar to Google's leveldb and Oracle's BerkeleyDB. hamsterdb is not a new contender in this niche. In fact, hamsterdb has been around for over 9 years. In this time, it has dramatically grown, and the focus has shifted from a pure key-value store to an analytical database offering functionality similar to a column store database. hamsterdb is single-threaded and non-distributed, and users usually link it directly into their applications. hamsterdb offers a unique (at least, as far as I know) implementation of Transactions, as well as other unique features similar to column store databases, making it a natural fit for analytical workloads. It can be used natively from C/C++ and has bindings for Erlang, Python, Java, .NET, and even Ada. It is used in embedded devices and on-premise applications with millions of deployments, as well as serving in cloud instances for caching and indexing. hamsterdb has a unique feature in the key-value niche: it understands schema information. While most databases do not know or care what kind of keys are inserted, hamsterdb supports key types for binary keys... Categories: Architecture ### Success Articles for Work and Life "Success consists of going from failure to failure without loss of enthusiasm." -- Winston Churchill I now have more than 300 articles on the topic of Success to help you get your game on in work and life: Success Articles That’s a whole lot of success strategies and insights right at your fingertips. (And it includes the genius from a wide variety of sources including Scott Adams, Tony Robbins, Bruce Lee, Zig Ziglar, and more.) Success is a hot topic. Success has always been a hot topic, but it seems to be growing in popularity. I suspect it’s because so many people are being tested in so many new ways and competition is fierce. But What is Success? (I tried to answer that using Zig Ziglar’s frame for success.) For another perspective, see Success Defined (It includes definitions of success from Stephen Covey and John Maxwell.) At the end of the day, the most important definition of success, is the one that you apply to you and your life. People can make or break themselves based on how they define success for their life. Some people define success as another day above ground, but for others they have a very high, and very strict bar that only a few mere mortals can ever achieve. That said, everybody is looking for an edge. And, I think our best edge is always our inner edge. As my one mentor put it, “the fastest thing you can change in any situation is yourself.” And as we all know, nature favors the flexible. Our ability to adapt and respond to our changing environment is the backbone of success. Otherwise, success is fleeting, and it has a funny way of eluding or evading us. I picked a few of my favorite articles on success. These ones are a little different by design. Here they are: Scott Adam’s (Dilbert) Success Formula It’s the Pebble in Your Shoe The Wolves Within Personal Leadership Helps Renew You The Power of Personal Leadership Tony Robbins on the 7 Traits of Success The Way of Success The future is definitely uncertain. I’m certain of that. But I’m also certain that life’s better with skill and that the right success strategies under your belt can make or break you in work and life. And the good news for us is that success leaves clues. So make like a student and study. Categories: Architecture, Programming ### The Easy Way of Building a Growing Startup Architecture Using HAProxy, PHP, Redis and MySQL to Handle 1 Billion Requests a Week This Case Study is a guest post written by Antoni Orfin, Co-Founder and Software Architect at Octivi In the post I'll show you the way we developed quite simple architecture based on HAProxy, PHP, Redis and MySQL that seamlessly handles approx 1 billion requests every week. There’ll be also a note of the possible ways of further scaling it out and pointed uncommon patterns, that are specific for this project. Stats: Categories: Architecture ### The AngularJS Promise DSL Xebia Blog - Mon, 08/11/2014 - 10:21 As promised in my previous post, I just pushed the first version of our "Angular Promise DSL" to Github. It extends AngularJS's$q promises with a number of helpful methods to create cleaner applications.

The project is a V1, it may be a bit rough around the edges in terms of practical applicability and documentation, but that's why it's open source now.

The repository is at https://github.com/fwielstra/ngPromiseDsl and licensed as MIT. It's the first OS project I've created, so bear with me. I am accepting pull requests and issues, of course.

Questions? Ask them on the issues page, ask me via Twitter (@frwielstra) or send me an e-mail. I'd offer you to come by my office too... if I had one.