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Six Lessons Learned the Hard Way About Scaling a Million User System

Ever come to a point where you feel you've learned enough to share your experiences in the hopes of helping others traveling the same road? That's what Martin Kleppmann has done in an lovingly written Six things I wish we had known about scaling, an article well worth your time.

It's not advice about scaling a Twitter, but of building a million user system, which is the sweet spot for a lot of projects. His conclusion rings true:

Building scalable systems is not all sexy roflscale fun. It’s a lot of plumbing and yak shaving. A lot of hacking together tools that really ought to exist already, but all the open source solutions out there are too bad (and yours ends up bad too, but at least it solves your particular problem).

Here's a gloss on the six lessons (plus a bonus lesson):

Categories: Architecture

Code School and the Google Maps SDK for iOS

Google Code Blog - Wed, 04/16/2014 - 16:55
Cross-posted from the Geo Developers Blog

By Mike Jeffrey, Google Maps API Team

Are you an iOS developer interested in adding a map to your application? The instructional experts at Code School set out to create a course introducing the Google Maps SDK for iOS to developers like you — and they delivered!

Exploring Google Maps for iOS is a free course covering everything from adding a simple map, to using geocoding and directions, to incorporating Street View in iOS. You'll end up with a working sample application and gain the knowledge you need to build your own amazing Google Maps-based apps. Learn from videos, sample code, and Xcode-based coding challenges.

Check out the introduction video below, and then head over to Code School to get started with their interactive course!

You can also read our official developer documentation and reference docs at https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/ios/.

Posted by Louis Gray, Googler
Categories: Programming

Quote of the Day

Herding Cats - Glen Alleman - Wed, 04/16/2014 - 12:52

Wisdom begins when we learn the difference between "that makes no sense" and "I don't understand".
Mary Doria Russell

It is that difference that is needed to assess when a idea passes the smell test

Categories: Project Management

Requirements Management Tool Review – Blueprint

Software Requirements Blog - Seilevel.com - Wed, 04/16/2014 - 12:48
One of the perks of working for a consulting company is that we get to work with a variety of tools and resources depending on the needs/desires of our clients. I have been working on a project to select a requirements management tool for one of our clients. For the project itself, we are using […]

Requirements Management Tool Review – Blueprint is a post from: http://requirements.seilevel.com/blog

Categories: Requirements

Software Creativity - Jazz or Beethoven's Ninth Symphony

Herding Cats - Glen Alleman - Wed, 04/16/2014 - 01:18

Giants_of_JazzThere is a popular notion that writing software is like jazz. A loose collection of participants, improvising around a theme to produce an emergent outcome. 

These participants play off each other, react to emergent streams of melody, contribute their own special talent to the music and pretty much work in a a self directed manner over the course of the performance.

While I'm not a fan of analogies, this is a useful one for the purpose here. There are certainly domains where the Jazz analogy describes what is going on in the trio in the picture to the left.

Beethovne 9th Ode to JoyBut what about other music? Music that is just as creative, just as moving, just as impactful to the listener. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony's Ode to Joy with the poem from Friedrich Schiller 1785 work is an example.

Words that have moved nations and populations. Following Beethoven's Ninth was a movie we saw over the weekend that described this result.

In the Ninth, each performer has a score to follow, led by the conductor, but also by the concert master and the  senior players in each section. The vocals are also led by a senior performer.

In the software business there are likely similar domains and projects. Ones that can be improvised and ones that require conductors, a concert master, and players who follow the score.

In both cases - and this is where the analogy falls apart - is the players are highly skilled, experienced in the art, having played the basic themes 1,000 of times over before improvising or following the score. 

The jazz performance is not made up as it goes. OK, fusion is, but that crap makes my head hurt. Melodies, rules for cords are practiced for 10,000 hours (Gladwell), relationships between the players have magical connections not available to mere mortals. The Jazz Trio and the Berlin Philharmonic are populated with highly skilled and experienced professionals. We've all heard our children play in the school band and know what that sounds like. All the platitudes in the world about agile axioms are of no worth without the necessary capabilities to actually get the work done properly.

Applying the notion that agile software development is like jazz makes as much sense as saying I can sit in the 3rd chair of the trombone section (my high school band position) and play my contribution to Beethoven's Ninth without a Curtis Institute degree in performance and 10 years experience (my aunt was a professional pianist in the late 1950's from Curtis). 

It's not gonna happen - in both analogies - without the prerequisites of professional performance capabilities. Otherwise the result sounds like we're back in High School Music class with Mr. Meach (my teacher).

So how long will it take us to be capable performing to a level needed to not  smell like we're high school kids in the marching band? I don't know let's make an estimate.

Related articles Analogies, the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly The "Real" Root Cause of IT Project Failure
Categories: Project Management

Mind Mapping: Drawing A Basic Mind Map

A mind map can follow a tree or a starburst pattern.

A mind map can follow a tree or a starburst pattern.

Mind mapping is a technique for mapping information using color, pictures, symbols and, most importantly, a branching structure emanating from a central concept. Mind maps are built using a fairly standard set of practices.  I will walk through two of the basic patterns used to construct mind maps.

The basic process flow for all mind maps is:

  1. Draw a circle in the middle of a piece of paper and with the theme in the bubble.  The theme is generally a word or phrase that will be used to guide building the mind map.  For example, the central them for this week’s essays is “mind mapping” and for last week was “Agile success factors.”
  2. Add branches beginning from central theme. Depending on the type of mind map most are either developed down the major branches or in more of a starburst pattern, if you area using brainstorming techniques. Developing mind maps is generally an iterative process.
  3. Refine the mind map. After completing the initial mind map walk through the major and minor subdivisions (the breakdown of major to minor subdivisions gives mind maps their classic tree structure) to determine whether topics should be rearranged or whether there are gaps that need to be filled.  Refining a mind map is also typically an iterative process.

The basic process can be leveraged with minor tweaking for many different types of mind maps. Here is an example of a topic driven mind map:

  1. Draw the topic circle in the middle of the paper (tools generally automatically do this for you). Before you commit to a topic for the mind map think carefully about where the topic might drive you.  For example, if I choose the topic of “mind maps” rather than “mind mapping” the subtle difference in wording could have cause the focus to shift from how to mind map to what is mind mapping.Untitled1
  2. Based on the central theme identify the major subdivisions or subcategories.  For example:Untitled2

In many cases the person building the mind map will have a general understanding of the major subdivisions, therefore listing the subdivisions makes sense. Where you are less sure I would let the subdivisions emerge using the starburst or shotgun method of developing a mind map (I will cover this on Wednesday). Regardless of technique, do not be afraid to add, change or delete subdivisions as you learn more or a better structure suggests itself.

  1. Break down the major subdivisions to the relevant level of detail.  For example:Untitled3

Brainstorming is a good process to jumpstart breaking subdivisions down. When using this process for mind mapping, I generally begin with a bit of research to prime the pump and focus, followed by brainstorming to drive out details and then more research to fill in the gaps.

Drawing a topic-driven mind is generally where new mind mappers begin. A topic-based approach provides structure to guide building a mind map. The one downside I have experienced with beginning with topic-driven mind maps is that the assumption of major subcategories can be constraining (similar to an anchor bias). Generating a mind map in a group session that includes diversity of thought is one way to avoid constraints and to leverage mind maps to help think out the linear box.


Categories: Process Management

Design, Develop, and Distribute at I/O 2014

Google Code Blog - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 21:15
By Billy Rutledge, Director of Developer Relations

Whether you're a developer who's interested in the latest developments in the Googleverse or someone who wants to build the next billion dollar app, Google I/O is the ticket for you. It’s your opportunity to speak directly with us about what’s going on and where apps are headed for 2014. At past I/Os, we skydived onto the Moscone Center--broadcasting live using Google Glass and Google+, launched hardware--like the original Nexus 7 and the first commercial Chromebooks, and showed you how you can use Google services to take your apps to the next level.

While we aren't ready to share what’s up our sleeves just yet, we can share with you that we’re focusing on three key themes this year: design, develop and distribute--helping you build and prove your app from start to finish. With those themes in mind and the registration window opening today (link), here’s what we’ve got planned for Google I/O 2014:

  • More time to talk code, wireframes, and business plans with real humans: If you're coming in person, the schedule will give you more time to interact in the Sandbox, where partners will be on hand to demo apps built on the best of Google and open source, and where you can interact with Googlers 1:1 and in small groups. Come armed with your app and get ready for direct feedback on your app design, code, and distribution plan.
  • Go deeper with content: A streamlined session schedule will be published in May featuring talks that will inspire ideas for your next app, while giving you the tools to build it. We'll also be providing self-paced Code Labs that you can dive into while at I/O.
  • A taste of San Francisco, with After Hours: All work and no play makes for a dull conference! After Hours will showcase some of what our vibrant city has to offer, including craft brews in our beer garden, our city's illustrious food trucks, and local indie bands, so you can tear it up on the lawn (yes, that's right: outside this year!)

We’re really looking forward to this year’s event and hope you are too. Don't forget that the registration window will remain open from 4pm PDT today (April 15) until April 18 at 2:00 PM PDT. Applicants will be selected at random after the window closes, and we’ll let you know your status on or around April 21.

We look forward to seeing you in June, whether you’re joining us at Moscone, at an I/O Extended event, or online at I/O Live.

Billy Rutledge, Director of Developer Relations

Posted by Louis Gray, Googler
Categories: Programming

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Who's Hiring?
  • Apple is hiring a Senior Engineer in their Mobile Services team. We seek an accomplished server-side engineer capable of delivering an extraordinary portfolio of features and services based on emerging technologies to our internal customers. Please apply here

  • Apple is hiring a Software Engineer in their Messaging Services team. We build the cloud systems that power some of the busiest applications in the world, including iMessage, FaceTime and Apple Push Notifications. You'll have the opportunity to explore a wide range of technologies, developing the server software that is driving the future of messaging and mobile services. Please apply here.

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  • Human Translation Platform Gengo Seeks Sr. DevOps Engineer. Build an infrastructure capable of handling billions of translation jobs, worked on by tens of thousands of qualified translators. If you love playing with Amazon’s AWS, understand the challenges behind release-engineering, and get a kick out of analyzing log data for performance bottlenecks, please apply here.

  • We’re looking for talented and driven engineers who are passionate about scalability and reliability to help us build Layer, the open communications layer for the Internet. Layer enables app developers to easily build secure, scalable messaging, voice and video features into any app. For more information and our full list of openings, please visit: https://layer.com/jobs

  • The Factory is seeking a collaborative, talented and entrepreneurial Sr. Front End Engineer. Backed by the co-founder of Skype+Rdio and led by Rdio's founding team, we're changing the way products are built and companies get launched (think incubator/accelerator without the nagging outside influence or funding/timing constraints).  Our goal is to build a platform to better launch startups and opensource what we do along the way http://www.thefactory.com/pdfs/sr_frontend.pdf

  • Airseed -- a Google Ventures backed, developer platform that powers single sign-on authentication, rich consumer data, and analytics -- is hiring lead backend and fullstack engineers (employees #4, 5, 6). More info here: https://www.airseed.com/jobs

  • UI EngineerAppDynamics, founded in 2008 and lead by proven innovators, is looking for a passionate UI Engineer to design, architect, and develop our their user interface using the latest web and mobile technologies. Make the impossible possible and the hard easy. Apply here.

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Fun and Informative Events
  • Safeguard Commercial Success with a Strategic Monitoring Approach. Does your enterprise have adequate monitoring strategies in place to deal with tech challenges that can otherwise impact revenue and damage your corporate brand? Register now to learn why your business must elevate the strategic importance of technology monitoring and learn how to safeguard your business

  • The Biggest MongoDB Event Ever Is On. Will You Be There? Join us in New York City June 23-25 for MongoDB World! The conference lineup includes Amazon CTO Werner Vogels and Cloudera Co-Founder Mike Olson for keynote addresses.  You’ll walk away with everything you need to know to build and manage modern applications. Register before April 4 to take advantage of super early bird pricing.

  • April 3 Webinar: The BlueKai Playbook for Scaling to 10 Trillion Transactions a Month. As the industry’s largest online data exchange, BlueKai knows a thing or two about pushing the limits of scale. Find out how they are processing up to 10 trillion transactions per month from Vice President of Data Delivery, Ted Wallace. Register today.
Cool Products and Services
  • GigOM Interviews Aerospike at Structure Data 2014 on Application Scalability. Aerospike Technical Marketing Director, Young Paik explains how you can add rocket fuel to your big data application by running the Aerospike database on top of Hadoop for lightning fast user-profile lookups. Watch this interview.

  • Couchbase: NoSQL and the Hybrid Cloud. If a NoSQL database can be deployed on-premise or it can be deployed in the cloud, why can’t it be deployed on-premise and in the cloud? It can, and it should. Read how in this article converting three use cases for hybrid cloud deployments of NoSQL databases: master / slave, cloud burst, and multi-master.

  • Do Continuous MapReduce on Live Data? ScaleOut Software's hServer was built to let you hold your daily business data in-memory, update it as it changes, and concurrently run continuous MapReduce tasks on it to analyze it in real-time. We call this "stateful" analysis. To learn more check out hServer.

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  • BlueStripe FactFinder Express is the ultimate tool for server monitoring and solving performance problems. Monitor URL response times and see if the problem is the application, a back-end call, a disk, or OS resources.

  • aiScaler, aiProtect, aiMobile Application Delivery Controller with integrated Dynamic Site Acceleration, Denial of Service Protection and Mobile Content Management. Cloud deployable. Free instant trial, no sign-up required.  http://aiscaler.com/

  • ManageEngine Applications Manager : Monitor physical, virtual and Cloud Applications.

  • www.site24x7.com : Monitor End User Experience from a global monitoring network.

If any of these items interest you there's a full description of each sponsor below. Please click to read more...

Categories: Architecture

Building a Product Users Want: From Idea to Backlog with the Vision Board

Mike Cohn's Blog - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 15:58

Many of you will know Roman Pichler as the author of Agile Product Management with Scrum. For the last few years Roman has been working on various ideas to support envisioning and ideation. I’ve asked him to write a guest post here describing his Vision Board and how it connects to Scrum’s product backlog. I’m sure you’ll find his ideas very interesting.
—Mike

Vision and Backlog

Scrum is a great framework for building a product with the right features. It encourages the use of a vision shared by the product owner, the ScrumMaster, the development team, and the stakeholders, and it provides a product backlog that allows the team to move towards the vision by creating product increments.

Unfortunately, there is little guidance on how the backlog is derived from the vision. Once we have an idea for a new product or new features, how do we know which user stories we should include in the backlog? And how can we tell who should be at the sprit review meeting to help us understand if we are building the right product?

 

 

 

 

 

In the worst case, we could implement the wrong stories, get feedback from the wrong people, and build a product nobody wants and needs.

Four Questions

I have found it very valuable to answer the following four questions before stocking the product backlog:

  • Who are the users and customers?
  • Why would they use and buy the product?
  • What makes the product special? What are its key features?
  • What are the business goals the product should deliver and how are they met?

Without knowing who the users and customers are and why they would employ the product, it’s impossible to write meaningful user stories. Similarly, we don’t understand what should make the product special and stand out, it is difficult to make informed decisions about the product functionality, the user interaction, the UI design right, and even the key architecture and technology choices. And without being clear on the business goals and the product’s business model, it will be hard to justify the investment and attract a budget.

Enter the Vision Board

The Vision Board is a simple yet effective tool that helps agile teams capture their vision and systematically answer the four questions above. The following picture shows the Vision Board, and I explain its sections below. You can download the tool for free at: romanpichler.com/tools/vision-board/

Vision Statement is a concise summary of your idea that describes your intention and motivation.

Target Group describes the market or segment you want to address. You should state who the users and its customers are likely to be.

Needs describes the product’s value proposition: the problems and pain points the product removes, and the benefits or gains it creates for the users and the customers. The section should make it clear why people will want to use and buy your product.

Product summarises the three to five features that make your product stand out. These are likely to correlate to its unique selling proposition, and they should address the needs identified.

Value explains why it’s worthwhile for your company to invest in the product and how the business goals can be achieved. Sample goals are increase revenue, enter a new market, reduce cost, develop the brand, or gain a technological advantage.

Let’s take a look at an example to make this more concrete.

A Sample Vision Board

Say we want to create a new game for children to help them enjoy more about music and dancing and learn about the topics. Then corresponding Vision Board could look like this:

The board above captures the overarching vision. It states children aged 8-12 as the intended users of the game and their parents as the customers. It lists three reasons why the kids would want to play the game, the key features of the product, and the business goal and how the business model could work.

The good news is the Vision Board above helped me to think through the market the value proposition and the business model of the new app. The bad news is it contains lots of untested assumptions that would make it a gamble to use the board to derive the product backlog. What’s required instead is to systematically identify and validate its assumptions.

Validation with the Vision Board

Validating the Vision Board starts with identifying the most crucial assumption, the assumption that must be tested now to avoid late failure – finding out too late that the problem is not worthwhile solving. Once you have identified the appropriate assumption, decide which method is best to address it and who should be in your test group.

Some of my favourite techniques for testing Vision Board assumptions are direct observation – watching target users and customers get a job done, for instance, observing how children play music games on the computer today – and problem interviews – talking to members of the target group about how they accomplish a job today, for instance, what’s good and bad about playing computer games, particularly those related to music and dancing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once you have run a test, collect the relevant data and analyse it. Then use the newly gained insights to change the board either radically or incrementally. An example of the latter is to adjust a need or to replace a key feature. But a radical change – called a “pivot” in Lean Startup – profoundly affects one of more sections of the Vision Board. The vision stays true but the path towards the vision changes. For instance, changing the product to an app that teaches children dancing by encouraging them to try out the moves themselves would be a pivot for the dance game.

From Vision Board to the Product Backlog

Once you have validates the key risks and critical assumptions on the Vision Board, use it to create the initial product backlog and discover the right stories, interactions, and UI design, as the following picture illustrates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

With your initial backlog and the Scrum team in place, you are ready to start sprinting.

Summary

Before writing user stories, coming up with user interface ideas or the user interaction, make sure you understand who the users and customers are, why they would use and buy your product. Find out what makes your product special, what your business goals are, and how you can meet them. As Joel A. Barker puts it: “Vision without action is merely a dream. Action without vision just passes the time. Vision with action can change the world.” You can learn more about working with the Vision Board and download the template for free at: romanpichler.com/tools/vision-board/

Unspoken Assumptions

Software Requirements Blog - Seilevel.com - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 12:34
Fundamentally, assumptions are facts that we tentatively decide to accept as true so we can continue to make progress, even though we know those assumptions might end up being wrong. Assume standard temperature and pressure, or assume a frictionless plane, or assume a spherical cow. Rather than measuring exact temperatures and pressures, or coefficients of […]

Unspoken Assumptions is a post from: http://requirements.seilevel.com/blog

Categories: Requirements

What Does It Mean To Be DONE?

Herding Cats - Glen Alleman - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 05:16

There is a continuing discussion in the agile community about delivering value in the order set by the customer. Along with this discussion is the use of the word DONE. A popular phrase is no requirement or piece of software can be considered DONE until it is put to use. 

This is a software developers point of view of course. But there is another view of software based products. It starts with the Measures of Effectiveness for the resulting product. These Measures of Effectiveness are:

Operational measures of success that are closely related to the achievements of the mission or operational objectives evaluated in an operation environment, under specific conditions.

This measure of DONE is not directly related to code, testing, requirements or anything like that. It is related to how Effective the software is in delivering the capabilities needed to fulfill the mission or business case. 

The individual requirements and pieces of code that implement them can be - or should be - traceable to these capabilities. For each Measure of Effectiveness, we then need a Measure of Performance. These measures characterise:

The functional or physical attributes relating to the system's operation, measured or estimated under specific conditions.

These are also not direclty related to producing code, running tests, or other direct software activities.

All the software design, testing, integration, etc. supports the creation of the ability to produce these Measures of Performance and Effectiveness. For the end user, all the development work is behind the scenes. What the customer actually bought was the ability to do something useful. To put a capability of the software system to work accomplishing a business need. Make money with this capability of course.

So What Does All This Mean?

It means that if you start at the bottom - with the software development processes - you're likley not going to see what the real picture is. This picture is that the customer paid for capabilities, measured in units of effectiveness and performance.

When we start with methods, paradigms, even cockamamie ones like not estimating the cost of the work effort needed to produce the capabilities, we loose the connection to why we are here. We are here to produce software that provides a capability. Likely more than one capability.

So when we hear words like - we can manage projects without knowing the cost or we'll let the requirements emerge, or the customer doesn't really know what they want, so we'll get started so they can decide along the way, ask how you are going to recognize DONE, before running out of time and money? 

How Do We Discover the Needed Capabilities?

Once we've decided that capabilities are in fact the place to start, how are they gathered. Here's the top level set of activities.

Screen Shot 2014-04-14 at 10.11.34 PM

Once we have these, we can start to elicit the technical and operational requirements that will fullfill these capabilities.

Screen Shot 2014-04-14 at 10.13.03 PM

These requirements can be emergent, they can evolve, they can be elicited incrementally and iteratively. But what ever way to appear they need to have a home. They need a reason for being here. They need to enable a capability to be available to the user. 

Categories: Project Management

Mind Mapping: An Introduction

A mind map on mind maps

A mind map on mind maps

A number of years ago I was the chair of the IFPUG Conference Committee.  Finding a keynote speaker that had the gravitas to fill seats (on a budget) and that would challenge the audience was a difficult chore. I had been pursuing Ed Yourdon for a few years, however he was too expensive. In 2002 my annual begging and the weak conference market convinced Ed to give IFPUG a break so we could afford him. A few weeks before the conference Ed announced that he would not be providing a set of PowerPoint slides, but rather would be using something called a mind map. I think I considered calling in sick to the conference I was so worried by the approach.  In retrospect Ed’s use of mind mapping represented one of those life-changing moments.

Mind mapping is a technique for mapping information using color, pictures, symbols and most importantly a branching structure emanating from a central concept. The technique and term mind mapping were popularized by a Tony Buzan in 1974. Mind mapping includes and leverages ideas and techniques from other problem-solving techniques and concepts such as radiant thinking and general semantics.

Mind mapping provides a tool to organize thought in a non-linear manner that allows the mind mapper to see the whole picture at once and the relationships between the components of the map. According to Buzan outlining, one of the most popular technique for gathering and organizing information, forces users into a top-to-bottom, left-to-right view of the data. Outlining by its nature can impart a deterministic view of the topic being studied (a form of cognitive bias). The popular psychology promoted by Buzan suggests that mind mapping by using words, color, pictures and symbols engages more parts of the mind. In Learning Styles and Teams we discussed the Seven Learning Styles model. Each style absorbs and processes information differently, but while everyone has a predominant style of learning they also are influenced by other styles. The use multiple techniques to gather, organize and convey information engages multiple learning styles therefore we would expect mind mapping to be useful to a broad range of learners.

Mind maps have a few drawbacks. I have observed that some people are (or are trained to be) very linear thinkers. The non-linear approach of a mind map does not work well for linear thinkers.  Note these types of thinkers will also generally have trouble with techniques like affinity diagramming. If you are linear thinker, feel free to experiment with mind mapping but remember that you always have the classic outlining techniques to fall back upon. A second drawback is that since when you draw a mind map the map is a reflection of how you think. In many cases this means the resulting map will be difficult for others to interpret. If a group is going to use the mind map to plan work (one use for a mind map) I strongly suggest building the map as a group effort.

The branching, tree-like structure of a mind map presents a central concept at the center of the map with major topics radiating from that topic. The map continues to branch out to the level of granularity that is important to the person drawing the map. A mind map allows the user to organize and visualize information so it can be consumed both at a big picture level and then drill down to a granular level in a manner that exposes relationships and engages the senses.

 


Categories: Process Management

Testing on the Toilet: Test Behaviors, Not Methods

Google Testing Blog - Mon, 04/14/2014 - 22:25
by Erik Kuefler

This article was adapted from a Google Testing on the Toilet (TotT) episode. You can download a printer-friendly version of this TotT episode and post it in your office.

After writing a method, it's easy to write just one test that verifies everything the method does. But it can be harmful to think that tests and public methods should have a 1:1 relationship. What we really want to test are behaviors, where a single method can exhibit many behaviors, and a single behavior sometimes spans across multiple methods.

Let's take a look at a bad test that verifies an entire method:

@Test public void testProcessTransaction() {
User user = newUserWithBalance(LOW_BALANCE_THRESHOLD.plus(dollars(2));
transactionProcessor.processTransaction(
user,
new Transaction("Pile of Beanie Babies", dollars(3)));
assertContains("You bought a Pile of Beanie Babies", ui.getText());
assertEquals(1, user.getEmails().size());
assertEquals("Your balance is low", user.getEmails().get(0).getSubject());
}

Displaying the name of the purchased item and sending an email about the balance being low are two separate behaviors, but this test looks at both of those behaviors together just because they happen to be triggered by the same method. Tests like this very often become massive and difficult to maintain over time as additional behaviors keep getting added in—eventually it will be very hard to tell which parts of the input are responsible for which assertions. The fact that the test's name is a direct mirror of the method's name is a bad sign.

It's a much better idea to use separate tests to verify separate behaviors:

@Test public void testProcessTransaction_displaysNotification() {
transactionProcessor.processTransaction(
new User(), new Transaction("Pile of Beanie Babies"));
assertContains("You bought a Pile of Beanie Babies", ui.getText());
}
@Test public void testProcessTransaction_sendsEmailWhenBalanceIsLow() {
User user = newUserWithBalance(LOW_BALANCE_THRESHOLD.plus(dollars(2));
transactionProcessor.processTransaction(
user,
new Transaction(dollars(3)));
assertEquals(1, user.getEmails().size());
assertEquals("Your balance is low", user.getEmails().get(0).getSubject());
}

Now, when someone adds a new behavior, they will write a new test for that behavior. Each test will remain focused and easy to understand, no matter how many behaviors are added. This will make your tests more resilient since adding new behaviors is unlikely to break the existing tests, and clearer since each test contains code to exercise only one behavior.

Categories: Testing & QA

Azure Updates: Web Sites, VMs, Mobile Services, Notification Hubs, Storage, VNets, Scheduler, AutoScale and More

ScottGu's Blog - Scott Guthrie - Mon, 04/14/2014 - 21:58

It has been a really busy last 10 days for the Azure team. This blog post quickly recaps a few of the significant enhancements we’ve made.  These include:

  • Web Sites: SSL included, Traffic Manager, Java Support, Basic Tier
  • Virtual Machines: Support for Chef and Puppet extensions, Basic Pricing tier for Compute Instances
  • Virtual Network: General Availability of DynamicRouting VPN Gateways and Point-to-Site VPN
  • Mobile Services: Preview of Visual Studio support for .NET, Azure Active Directory integration and Offline support;
  • Notification Hubs: Support for Kindle Fire devices and Visual Studio Server Explorer integration
  • Autoscale: General Availability release
  • Storage: General Availability release of Read Access Geo Redundant Storage
  • Active Directory Premium: General Availability release
  • Scheduler service: General Availability release
  • Automation: Preview release of new Azure Automation service

All of these improvements are now available to use immediately (note that some features are still in preview).  Below are more details about them:

Web Sites: SSL now included at no additional charge in Standard Tiers

With Azure Web Sites you can host up to 500 web-sites in a single standard tier hosting plan.  Azure web-sites run in VMs isolated to host only your web applications (giving you predictable performance and security isolation), and you can scale-up/down the number of VMs either manually or using our built-in AutoScale functionality.  The pricing for standard tier web-sites is based on the number of VMs you run – if you host all 500 web-sites in a single VM then all you pay for is for that single VM, if you scale up your web site plan to run across two VMs then you’d pay for two VMs, etc.

Prior to this month we charged an additional fee if you wanted to enable SSL for the sites.  Starting this month, we now include the ability to use 5 SNI based SSL certificates and 1 IP based SSL certificate with each standard tier web site hosting plan at no additional charge.  This helps make it even easier (and cheaper) to SSL enable your web-sites.

Web Sites: Traffic Manager Support

I’ve blogged in the past about the Traffic Manager service we have built-into Azure. 

The Azure Traffic Manager service allows you to control the distribution of user traffic to applications that you host within Azure. This enables you to run instances of your applications across different azure regions all over the world.  Traffic Manager works by applying an intelligent routing policy engine to the Domain Name Service (DNS) queries on your domain names, and maps the DNS routes to the appropriate instances of your applications (e.g. you can setup Traffic Manager to route customers in Europe to a European instance of your app, and customers in North America to a US instance of your app).

You can use Traffic Manager to improve application availability - by enabling automatic customer traffic fail-over scenarios in the event of issues with one of your application instances.  You can also use Traffic Manager to improve application performance - by automatically routing your customers to the closet application instance nearest them.

We are excited to now provide general availability support of Traffic Manager with Azure Web Sites.  This enables you to both improve the performance and availability of your web-sites.  You can learn more about how to take advantage of this new support here.

Web Sites: Java Support

This past week we added support for an additional server language with Azure Web Sites – Java.  It is now easy to deploy and run Java web applications written using a variety of frameworks and containers including:

  • Java 1.7.0_51 – this is the default supported Java runtime
  • Tomcat 7.0.50 – the default Java container
  • Jetty 9.1.0

You can manage which Java runtime you use, as well as which container hosts your applications using the Azure management portal or our management APIs.  This blog post provides more detail on the new support and options.

With this announcement, Azure Web Sites now provides first class support for building web applications and sites using .NET, PHP, Node.js, Python and Java.  This enables you to use a wide variety of language + frameworks to build your applications, and take advantage of all the great capabilities that Web Sites provide (Easy Deployment, Continuous Deployment, AutoScale, Staging Support, Traffic Manager, outside-in monitoring, Backup, etc).

Web Sites: Support for Wildcard DNS and SSL Certificates

Azure Web Sites now supports the ability to map wildcard DNS and SSL Certficates to web-sites.  This enables a variety of scenarios – including the ability to map wildcard vanity domains (e.g. *.myapp.com – for example: scottgu.myapp.com) to a single backend web site.  This can be particularly useful for SaaS based scenarios.

Scott Cate has an excellent video that walks through how to easily set this support up.

Web Sites: New Basic Tier Pricing Option

Earlier in this post I talked about how we are now including the ability to use 5 SNI and 1 IP based SSL certificate at no additional cost with each standard tier azure web site hosting plan.  We have also recently announced that we are also including the auto-scale, traffic management, backup, staging and web jobs features at no additional cost as part of each standard tier azure web site hosting plan as well.  We think the combination of these features provides an incredibly compelling way to securely host and run any web application.

New Basic Tier Pricing Option

Starting this month we are also introducing a new “basic tier” option for Azure web sites which enables you to run web applications without some of these additional features – and at 25% less cost.  We think the basic tier is great for smaller/less-sophisticated web applications, and enables you to be successful while paying even less. 

For additional details about the Basic tier pricing, visit the Azure Web sites pricing page.  You can select which tier your web-site hosting plan uses by clicking the Scale tab within the Web Site extension of the Azure management portal.

Virtual Machines: Create from Visual Studio

With the most recent Azure SDK 2.3 release, it is now possible to create Virtual Machines from directly inside Visual Studio’s Server Explorer.  Simply right-click on the Azure node within it, and choose the “Create Virtual Machine” menu option:

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This will bring up a “Create New Virtual Machine” wizard that enables you to walkthrough creating a Virtual Machine, picking an image to run in it, attaching it to a virtual network, and open up firewall ports all from within Visual Studio:

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Once created you can then manage the VM (shutdown, restart, start, remote desktop, enable debugging, attach debugger) all from within Visual Studio:

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This makes it incredibly easy to start taking advantage of Azure without having to leave the Visual Studio IDE.

Virtual Machines: Integrated Puppet and Chef support

In a previous blog post I talked about the new VM Agent we introduced as an optional extension to Virtual Machines hosted on Azure.  The VM Agent is a lightweight and unobtrusive process that you can optionally enable to run inside your Windows and Linux VMs. The VM Agent can then be used to install and manage extensions, which are software modules that extend the functionality of a VM and help make common management scenarios easier. 

At last week’s Build conference we announced built-in support for several new extensions – including extensions that enable easy support for Puppet and Chef.  Puppet and Chef allow developers and IT administrators to define and automate the desired state of infrastructure configuration, making it effortless to manage 1000s of VMs in Azure.

Enabling Puppet Support

We now have a built-in VM image within the Azure VM gallery that enables you to easily stand up a puppet-master server that you can use to store and manage your infrastructure using Puppet.  Creating a Puppet Master in Azure is now easy – simply select the “Puppet Enterprise” template within the VM gallery:

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You can then create new Azure virtual machines that connect to this Puppet Master.  Enabling this with VMs created using the Azure management portal is easy (we also make it easy to do with VMs created with the command-line).  To enable the Puppet extension within a VM you create using the Azure portal simply navigate to the last page of the Create VM from gallery experience and check the “Puppet Enterprise Agent” extension within it:

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Specify the URL of the Puppet master server to get started. Once you deploy the VM, the extension will configure the puppet agent to connect to this Puppet master server and pull down the initial configuration that should be used to configure the machine.

This new support makes it incredibly easy to get started with both Puppet and Chef and enable even richer configuration management of your IaaS infrastructure within Azure.

Virtual Machines: Basic Tier

Earlier in this blog post I discussed how we are introducing a new “Basic Tier” option for Azure Web Sites.  Starting this month we are also introducing a “Basic Tier” for Virtual Machines as well.

The Basic Tier option provides VM options with similar CPU + memory configuration options as our existing VMs (which are now called “Standard Tier” VMs) but do not include the built-in load balancing and AutoScale capabilities.  They also cost up to 27% less.  These instances are well-suited for production applications that do not require a built-in load balancer (you can optionally bring your own load balancer), batch processing scenarios, as well as for dev/test workloads.  Our new Basic tier VMs also have similar performance characteristics to AWS’s equivalent VM instances (which are less powerful than the Standard tier VMs we have today).

Comprehensive pricing information is now available on the Virtual Machines Pricing Details page.

Networking: General Availability of Azure Virtual Network Dynamic Routing VPN Gateways and Point-to-Site VPN

Last year, we previewed a feature called DynamicRouting Gateway and Point-to-Site VPN that supports Route-based VPNs and allows you to connect individual computers to a Virtual Network in Azure. Earlier this month we announced that the feature is now generally available. The DynamicRouting VPN Gateway in a Virtual Network will now carry the same 99.9% SLA as the StaticRouting VPN Gateway.

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Now that we’re in General Availability mode, DynamicRouting Gateway will automatically incur standard Gateway charges which will take effect starting May 1, 2014. 

For further details on the service, please visit the Virtual Network website.

Mobile Services: Visual Studio Support for Mobile Services .NET Backend

With Visual Studio 2013 Update 2, you can now create your backend Mobile Service logic using .NET and the ASP.NET Web API framework in Visual Studio, using Mobile Services templates and scaffolds. Mobile Services support for .NET on the backend offers the following benefits:

  1. You can use ASP.NET Web API and Visual Studio together with Mobile Services to add a backend to your mobile app in minutes
  2. You can publish any existing Web API to Mobile Services and benefit from authentication, push notifications and other capabilities that Mobile Services provides. You can also take advantage of any Web API features like OData controllers, or 3rd party Web API-based frameworks like Breeze.
  3. You can debug your Mobile Services .NET backend using Visual Studio running locally on your machine or remotely in Azure.
  4. With Mobile Services we run, manage and monitor your Web API for you. Azure will automatically notify you if we discover you have a problem with your app.
  5. With Mobile Services .NET support you can store your data securely using any data backend of your choice: SQL Azure, SQL on Virtual Machine, Azure Table storage, Mongo, et al.

It’s easy to get started with Mobile Services .NET support in Visual Studio. Simply use the File-New Project dialog and select the Windows Azure Mobile Service project template under the Cloud node.

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Choose Windows Azure Mobile Service in the New ASP .NET Project dialog.

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You will see a Mobile Services .NET project, notice this is a customized ASP .NET Web API project with additional Mobile Service NuGet packages and sample controllers automatically included:

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Running the Mobile Service Locally

You can now test your .Net Mobile Service project locally. Open the sample TodoItemController.cs in the project. The controller shows you how you can use the built-in TableController<T> .NET class we provide with Mobile Services. Set a breakpoint inside the GetAllTodoItems() method and hit F5 within Visual Studio to run the Mobile Service locally.

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Mobile Services includes a help page to view and test your APIs. On the help page, click on the try it out link and then click the GET tables/TodoItem link. Then click try this out and send on the GET tables/TodoItem page. As you might expect, you will hit the breakpoint you set earlier.

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Add APIs to your Mobile Service using Scaffolds

You can add additional functionality to your Mobile Service using Mobile Service or generic Web API controller scaffolds through the Add Scaffold dialog (right click on your project and choose Add -> New Scaffolded Item… command)

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Publish your Mobile Services project to Azure

Once you are done developing your Mobile Service locally, you can publish it to Azure. Simply right click on your project and choose the Publish command. Using the publish wizard, you can publish to a new or existing Azure Mobile Service:

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Remote debugging

Just like Cloud Services and Websites, you can now remote debug your Mobile Service to get more visibility into how your code is operating live in Azure. To enable remote debugging for a Mobile Service, publish your Mobile Service again and set the Configuration to Debug in the Publish wizard.

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Once your Mobile Service is published and running live in the cloud, simply set a breakpoint in local source code. Then use Visual Studio’s Server Explorer to select the Mobile Service instance deployed in the cloud, right click and choose the Attach Debugger command.

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Once the debugger attaches to the mobile service, you can use the debugging capabilities of Visual Studio to instantly and in-real time debug your app running in the cloud.

To learn more about Visual Studio Support for Mobile Services .NET backend follow tutorials at:

This new .NET backend supports makes it easy to create even better mobile applications than ever before.

Mobile Services: Offline Support

In addition to the above support, we are also introducing a preview of a new Mobile Services Offline capability with client SDK support for Windows Phone and Windows Store apps.

With this functionality, mobile applications can create and modify data even when they are offline/disconnected from a network. When the app is back online, it can synchronize local changes with the Mobile Services Table APIs. The feature also includes support for detecting conflicts when the same record is changed on both the client and the backend.

To use the new Mobile Services offline functionality, set up a local sync store. You can define your own sync store or use the provided SQLite-based implementation.  The Mobile Services SDK provides a new local table API for the sync store, with a symmetrical programming model to the existing Mobile Services Table API. You can use Optimistic Concurrency along with the offline feature to detect conflicting changes between the client and backend.

The preview of the Mobile Services Offline feature is available now as part of the Mobile Services SDK for Windows Store and Windows Phone apps. In the future, we will support all client platforms supported by Mobile Services, including iOS, Android, Xamarin, etc.

Mobile Services: Support for Azure Active Directory Sign On

We now support Azure Active Directory Single Sign On for Mobile Services.  Azure Active Directory authentication is available for both the .NET and Node.js backend options of Mobile Services.

To take advantage of the feature, first register your client app and your Mobile Service with your Azure Active Directory tenant using the Applications tab in the Azure Active Directory management portal.

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In your client project, you will need to add the Active Directory Authentication Library (ADAL), currently available for Windows Store, iOS, and Android clients.

From there on, the token retrieved from ADAL library can be used to authenticate and access Mobile Services.  The single sign-on features of ADAL also enables your mobile service to make calls to other resources (such as SharePoint and Office 365) on behalf of the user.  You can read more about the new ADAL functionality here.

These new updates make Mobile Services an even more attractive platform for building powerful employee facing apps.

Notification Hub: Kindle Support and Visual Studio Integration

I’ve previously blogged about Azure Notification Hubs, a high scale cross platform push notification service that allows you to instantly send personalized push notifications to segments of your audience or individuals containing millions of iOS, Android, Windows, Widows Phone devices with a single API call.

Today we’ve made two important updates to Azure Notification Hubs: adding support for Amazon Kindle Fire devices, and Visual Studio support for Notification Hubs.

Support for Amazon’s Kindle

With today’s addition you can now configure your Notification Hubs with Amazon Device Messaging (ADM) service credentials on the configuration page for your Notification Hub in the Azure Management portal, and start sending push notifications to your app on Amazon’s Kindle device, in addition to iOS, Android, or Windows.

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Testing Push Notifications with Visual Studio

Earlier I blogged about how we enabled debugging push notifications using the Azure Management Portal. With today’s Visual Studio update, you can now browse your notification hubs and send test push notifications directly from Visual Studio Server Explorer as well.

Simply select your notification hub in the Server Explorer of Visual Studio under the Notifications Hubs node.  Then right click, and choose the Send Test Notifications command:

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In the notification hub window, you can then send a message either to a particular tag or all registered devices (broadcast). You can select from a variety of templates - Windows Store, Windows Phone, Android, iOS, or even a cross platform message using the Custom Template. After you hit Send, you’ll receive the message result instantly to help you diagnose if your message was successfully sent or not.

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To learn more about Azure Notification Hubs, read tutorials here.

AutoScale: Announcing General Availability of Autoscale Service

Last summer we announced the preview release of our Autoscale service. I’m happy to announce that Autoscale is now generally available!  Better yet, there's no additional charge for using Autoscale.

We've added new features since we first released it as a preview version: support for both performance-and schedule-based autoscaling, along with an API and .NET SDK so you can programmatically scale using any performance counters that you define.

Autoscale supports all four Azure compute services: Cloud Services, Virtual Machines, Mobile Services and Web Sites. For Virtual Machines and Web Sites, Autoscale is included as a feature in the Standard pricing tiers, and for Mobile Services, it's included as a part of both Basic and Standard pricing tiers.

Storage: Announcing General Availability of Read Access Geo Redundant Storage (RA-GRS)

In December, we added the ability to allow customers to achieve higher read availability for their data. This feature called Read Access - Geo Redundant Storage (RA-GRS) allows you to read an eventually consistent copy of your geo-replicated data from the storage account’s secondary region in case of any unavailability to the storage account’s primary region.

Last week we announced that RA-GRS feature is now out of preview mode, and generally available. It is available to all Azure customers across all regions including the users in China.

RA-GRS SLA and Pricing

The benefit of using RA-GRS is that it provides a higher read availability (99.99+%) for a storage account over GRS (99.9+%). When using RA-GRS, the write availability continues to be 99.9+% (same as GRS today) and read availability for RA-GRS is 99.99+%, where the data is expected to be read from secondary if primary is unavailable. In terms of pricing, the capacity (GB) charge is slightly higher for RA-GRS than GRS, whereas the transaction and bandwidth charges are the same for GRS and RA-GRS. See the Windows Azure Storage pricing page here for more details about the SLA and pricing.

You can find more information on the storage blog here.

Active Directory: General Availability of Azure AD Premium

Earlier this month we announced the general availability of Azure Active Directory Premium, which provides additional identity and access management capabilities for enterprises. Building upon the capabilities of Azure AD, Azure AD Premium provides these capabilities with a guaranteed SLA and no limit on directory size. Additional capabilities include:

  • Group-based access assignment enables administrators to use groups in AD to assign access for end users to over 1200 cloud applications in the AD Application Gallery. End users can get single-sign on access to their applications from their Access Panel at https://myapps.microsoft.com or from our iOS application.
  • Self-service password reset that enables end users to reset forgotten passwords without calling your help desk.
  • Delegated group management that enables end users to create security groups and manage membership in security groups they own.
  • Multi-Factor Authentication that lets you easily deploy a Multi-Factor Authentication solution for your business without deploying new software or hardware.
  • Customized branding that lets you include your organization’s branding elements in the experiences that users see when signing in to AD or accessing their Access Panel.
  • Reporting, alerting, and analytics that increase your visibility into application usage in your organization, and potential security concerns with user accounts.

Azure AD Premium also includes usage rights for Forefront Identity Manager Server and Client Access Licenses.

To read more about AD Premium, including how to acquire it, read the Active Directory Team blog.

Active Directory: Public Preview of Azure Rights Management Service

Earlier this month we announced the public preview of the ability to manage your Azure Rights Management service within the Azure Management Portal. If your organization has Azure Rights Management either as a stand-alone service or as part of your Office 365 or EMS subscriptions you can now manage it by signing into the Azure Management Portal. Once in the Portal, select ACTIVE DIRECTORY in the left navigation bar, navigate to the RIGHTS MANAGEMENT tab, then click on the name of your directory.

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With this preview you can now create custom rights policy templates that let you define who can access sensitive documents, and what permissions (view, edit, save, print, and more) users can have on those documents.  To begin creating a rights policy template, in the Quick Start page, click on Create an additional rights policy template option and follow the instructions on the page to define a name and description for the template, add users and rights and define other restrictions.

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Once your template has been created and published, it will become available to users in your organization in their favorite applications.

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To learn more managing Azure Rights Management and the benefits it offers to organizations, see the Information Protection group’s blog

Scheduler: General Availability Release Scheduler Service

This month we’ve also delivered the General Availability release of the Azure Scheduler service.  Scheduler allows you to run jobs on simple or complex recurring schedules that can invoke HTTP/S endpoints or post messages to storage queues. Scheduler has built-in high availability and can reliably call services inside or outside of Azure.

During preview customers have used it for a wide set of scenarios including for invoking services in their backend for Hadoop workloads, triggering diagnostics cleanup, and periodically checking that partners have submitted content on time. ISVs have used it to empower their applications to add scheduling capabilities such as report generation and sending reminders.

In the Scheduler portal extension you can easily create and manage your scheduler jobs. Since the initial release, Scheduler has also added the ability to update HTTP jobs with custom headers and basic authentication. It has also exposed the ability to change the recurrence schedule which will allow you to also choose to limit the execution of a job or allow the job to run infinitely.

With the general availability, new Azure Scheduler cmdlets have been released with Azure PowerShell and the Scheduler .NET API has been included in WAML 1.0.

I highly encourage you to try out the Scheduler today. You might find the following links helpful:

It makes scheduling recurring tasks really easy.

Automation: Announcing Microsoft Azure Automation Preview

Last week we announced the preview of a new Microsoft Azure service: Automation.

Automation allows you to automate the creation, deployment, monitoring, and maintenance of resources in your Azure environment using a highly scalable and reliable workflow execution engine. The service can be used to orchestrate the time-consuming, error-prone, and frequently repeated tasks you’d otherwise accomplish manually across Microsoft Azure and third-party systems to decrease operational expense for your cloud operations.

To get started with Automation, you first need to sign-up for the preview on the Azure Preview page. Once you have been approved for the preview, you can sign in to the Management Portal and start using it. Automation is currently only available in the East-US data center, but we will add the ability to deploy to additional data centers in the future.

Authoring a Runbook

Once you have the Automation preview enabled on your subscription, you can easily get started automating by following a few simple steps:

Step 1: In the Microsoft Azure management portal, click New->App Services->Automation->Runbook->Quick Create to create a new runbook. Runbooks are collections of activities that provide an environment for automating everything from diagnostic logging to applying updates to all instances of a virtual machine or web role to renewing certificates to cleaning storage accounts. Enter a name and description for the runbook, and create a new Automation account which will store your Runbooks, Assets, and Jobs.

Next time you create a runbook you can either use the same Automation account as you just created or create a separate one to if you’d like to maintain separation between a few different collections of runbooks / assets.

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Step 2: Click on your runbook, then click Author->Draft. Type some PowerShell commands in the editor, then hit ‘Publish’ to make this runbook draft available for production execution.

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Starting a Runbook and Viewing the Job

1. To start the runbook you just published, go back to the ‘Runbooks’ tab, click on your newly-published runbook, and hit ‘Start.’ Enter any required parameters for the runbook, then click the checkmark button.

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2. Click on your runbook, then click on the ‘Jobs’ tab for this runbook. Here you can view all the instances of a runbook that have run, called jobs. You should see the job you just started.

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3. Click on the job you just started to view more details about its execution. Here you can see the job output, as well as any exceptions that may have occurred while the job was executing.

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Once you get familiar with the service, you’ll be able to create more sophisticated runbooks to automate your scenarios. I encourage you to try out Microsoft Azure Automation today.

For more information, click through the following links:

Summary

This most recent release of Azure includes a bunch of great features that enable you to build even better cloud solutions.  If you don’t already have a Azure account, you can sign-up for a free trial and start using all of the above features today.  Then visit the Azure Developer Center to learn more about how to build apps with it.

Hope this helps,

Scott

P.S. In addition to blogging, I am also now using Twitter for quick updates and to share links. Follow me at: twitter.com/scottgu

Categories: Architecture, Programming

How do you even do anything without using EBS?

In a recent thread on Hacker News discussing recent AWS price changes, seldo mentioned they use AWS for business, they just never use EBS on AWS. A good question was asked:

How do you even do anything without using EBS?

Amazon certainly makes using EBS the easiest path. And EBS has a better reliability record as of late, but it's still often recommended to not use EBS. This avoids a single point of failure at the cost of a lot of complexity, though as AWS uses EBS internally, not using EBS may not save you if you use other AWS services like RDS or ELB.

If you don't want to use EBS, it's hard to know where to even start. A dilemma to which Kevin Nuckolls gives a great answer:

Well, you break your services out onto stateless and stateful machines. After that, you make sure that each of your stateful services is resilient to individual node failure. I prefer to believe that if you can't roll your entire infrastructure over to new nodes monthly then you're unprepared for the eventual outage of a stateful service.

Most databases have replication but you need to make sure that the characteristics of how the database handles a node failure are well understood. Worst case you use EBS, put your state on it, snapshot it regularly, and ship those snapshots to another region because when EBS fails it fails hard.

Also, logs make every machine stateful. Use something like logstash to centralize that state.

If ELB is down in a given region then DNS failover to another region. Assuming you feel comfortable rolling your entire infrastructure monthly, have good images / configuration management, and have the state replicated in the backup region. That or sidestep ELB in your region to a team of stateless load balancers that terminate SSL.

Jeremy Edberg to a question about how to run databases without EBS, says:

By having good replication, either hand rolled or built in.

At Netflix we use Cassandra and store all data on local instance storage. We don't use EBS for databases.

Categories: Architecture

Test Automation Framework Architecture

Making the Complex Simple - John Sonmez - Mon, 04/14/2014 - 16:00

Test automation framework architecture efforts are often complete failures. It’s true. I’ve worked with many companies who have given up on creating a good test automation framework architecture, because after investing a large amount of time and money and resources in doing it the wrong way, they have incorrectly assumed the entire effort is not […]

The post Test Automation Framework Architecture appeared first on Simple Programmer.

Categories: Programming

Help Me Promote My New FREE Book!

NOOP.NL - Jurgen Appelo - Mon, 04/14/2014 - 13:00
Stoos Sparks

The PDF version of my new book will be free. Soon!
Now that the writing of my third book is nearing completed (estimated release date of the free PDF version: 3rd week of May) it seems I will have some more time to talk about it.

Tomorrow (Tuesday) I will appear in a Stoos Sparks webinar episode, to discuss remote collaboration, together with Dawna Jones, Lisette Sutherland and Elinor Slomba

The post Help Me Promote My New FREE Book! appeared first on NOOP.NL.

Categories: Project Management

Why Have a Strategy?

To be able to change it.

Brilliant pithy advice from Professor Jason Davis’ class,Technology Strategy (MIT’s OpenCourseWare.)

Categories: Architecture, Programming

Scrum Repair Guide Giveaway

Mike Cohn's Blog - Mon, 04/14/2014 - 03:11

Our newest venture, Front Row Agile, launched last week to bring online agile and Scrum training from the industry's leading educators to people all over the world.

To celebrate its launch, we're running a raffle to give away my newest online training, the "Scrum Repair Guide," to one winner. 

Entering the contest is simple. Head on over to the contest page at Front Row Agile to learn more. The contest starts today and ends at midnight Pacific Time this Thursday, April 17.

As part of the giveaway, I'll be donating $1 for every person who participates to the non-profit organization, Best Friends, which provides alternatives to euthanizing animals housed in shelters. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Good luck!

Variable Testers

James Bach’s Blog - Sun, 04/13/2014 - 22:55

I once heard a vice president of software engineering tell his people that they needed to formalize their work. That day, I was an unpaid consultant in the building to give a free seminar, so I had even less restraint than normal about arguing with the guy. I raised my hand, “I don’t think you can mean that, sir. Formality is about sameness. Are you really concerned that your people are working in different ways? It seems to me that what you ought to be concerned about is effectiveness. In other words, get the job done. If the work is done a different way every time, but each time done well, would you really have a problem with that? For that matter, do you actually know how your folks work?”

This was years ago. I’m wracking my brain, but I can’t remember specifically how the executive responded. All I remember is that he didn’t reply with anything very specific and did not seem pleased to be corrected by some stranger who came to give a talk.

Oh well, it had to be done.

I have occasionally heard the concern by managers that testers are variable in their work; that some testers are better than others; and that this variability is a problem. But variability is not a problem in and of itself. When you drive a car, there are different cars on the road each day, and you have to make different patterns of turning the wheel and pushing the brake. So what?

The weird thing is how utterly obvious this is. Think about managers, designers, programmers, product owners… think about ANYONE in engineering. We are all variable. Complaining about testers being variable– as if that were a special case– seems bizarre to me… unless…

I suppose there are two things that come to mind which might explain it:

1) Maybe they mean “testers vary between satisfying me and not satisfying me, unlike other people, who always satisfy me.” To examine this we would discover what their expectations are. Maybe they are reasonable or maybe they are not. Maybe a better system for training and leading testers is needed.

2) Maybe they mean “testing is a strictly formal process that by its nature should not vary.” This is a typical belief by people who know nothing about testing. What they need is to have testing explained or demonstrated to them by someone who knows what he’s doing.

 

 

 

 

 

Categories: Testing & QA